Impact of recycled asphalt pavement on properties of foamed bituminous mixtures


In recent years, the use of foamed bitumen technology along with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement is gaining popularity across the world. The mechanical response of foamed bitumen mixtures containing reclaimed asphalt pavement is significantly influenced by constituent material properties and aggregate gradation. This article presents results from a study where foamed bitumen mixtures conforming to Indian specifications were evaluated. For this purpose, foamed bitumen mixtures using a different percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement and bitumens were prepared. Initially, the foaming characteristics of virgin bitumens were evaluated to optimize for optimum water content and foaming temperature. In the second stage, mixture design was conducted to optimize for foamed bitumen content in foamed bitumen mixtures containing a different percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement. Finally, these foamed bitumen mixtures were evaluated for their mechanical properties. The results from this laboratory study indicated properties of foamed bitumen and foamed mixtures are significantly influenced by properties of bitumen, the quantity of bitumen, and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Among the different mixtures, a mixture containing 50% reclaimed asphalt pavement exhibited best results in resilient modulus and resistance to moisture damage tests. A mixture containing 80% reclaimed asphalt pavement also shows acceptable strength and resistance to water susceptibility. Thus, it is possible to design high-quality bituminous mixes using higher reclaimed asphalt pavement percentages, which meet the required volumetric and desired performance criteria.

Keyword : foamed bitumen mixtures, indirect tensile strength, mixture design, reclaimed asphalt pavement, resilient modulus, tensile strength ratio

Mar 12, 2018
Mar 27, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AASHTO T180:2001 Modified Method of Test for the Moisture-Density Relations of Soils. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.

Abdullah, G. M., & Wahhab, H. I. A. A. (2015). Evaluation of foamed sulfur asphalt stabilized soils for road applications. Construction and Building Materials, 88, 149-158.

ASTM D4867-04:2009 Standard Test Method for Effect of Moisture on Asphalt Concrete paving Mixtures. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

ASTM D6931-12:2012 Standard Test Method for Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) of Bituminous Mixtures. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

ASTM D4123-04:2009 Standard Test Method for Determining the Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures by Indirect Tension Test. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

Austroads. (2013). Guide to Pavement Technology Part 4D: Stabilised Materials. AGPT04D-06, Sydney, NSW.

Bowering, R. H., & Martin, C. L. (1976). Foamed bitumen production and application of mixtures, evaluation and performance of pavements. Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 45, 453-477.

Cazacliu, B., M., Peticila, B., Guieysse, J., Colange, C., Leroux, J., & Blaszczyk, R. (2008). Effect of process parameters on foam bitumen-based road materials production at ambient temperature. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 9, 499-523.

Chomicz-Kowalska, A., & Maciejewski, K. (2015). Multivariate optimization of recycled road base cold mixtures with foamed bitumen original. Procedia Engineering, 108, 436-444.

Chomicz-Kowalska, A., Gardziejczyk, W., & Iwański, M. M. (2016). Moisture resistance and compactibility of asphalt concrete produced in half-warm mix asphalt technology with foamed bitumen. Construction and Building Materials, 126, 108-118.

Csanyi, L. H. (1957). Foamed asphalt in bituminous paving mixtures. Highway Research Board Bulletin, 160, 108-122.

Dal Ben, M., & Jenkins, K. J. (2014). Performance of cold recycling materials with foamed bitumen and increasing percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 15(2), 348-371.

Huan, Y., Siripun, K., Jitsangiam, P., & Nikraz, H. (2010). A preliminary study on foamed bitumen stabilisation for Western Australian pavements. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(23), 3687-3700.

IRC: 37. (2013). Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavement 3rd revision. Indian Road Congress, New Delhi.

IS: 2386 (Part I-IV). (1961). Methods of Test for Aggregates. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

IS: 6241. (1971). Method of Test for Determination of Stripping Value of Road Aggregates.

IS: 73. (2012). Paving Bitumen – Specification. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.

Iwański, M., Chomicz-Kowalska, A., & Maciejewski, K. (2015). Application of synthetic wax for improvement of foamed bitumen parameters. Construction and Building Materials, 83, 62-69.

Jenkins, K. J. (2000). Mix design considerations for cold and half-warm bituminous mixes with emphasis on foamed bitumen. PhD Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Jones, D., Fu, P., Harvey, J., & Halles, F. (2008). Full-depth pavement reclamation with foamed asphalt, Research Report:UCPRC-RR-2008-07. University of California Pavement Research Center, Berkeley.

Khosravifar, S., Schwartz, C. W., & Goulias, D. G. (2015). Mechanistic structural properties of foamed asphalt stabilised base materials. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 16(1), 27-38.

Kim, Y., Lee, H. D., & Heitzman, M. (2007). Validation of new mix design procedure for cold in-place recycling with foamed asphalt. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 19(11), 1000-1010.

Kuna, K., Airey, G., & Thom, N. (2016). Mix design considerations of foamed bitumen mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement material. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 1-14.

Li, Z., Hao, P., Liu, H., Xu, J., & Chen, Z. (2016). Investigation of early-stage strength for cold recycled asphalt mixture using foamed asphalt. Construction and Building Materials, 127, 410-417.

Loizos, A., & Papavasiliou, V. (2006). Evaluation of foamed asphalt cold in-place pavement recycling using nondestructive techniques. Journal of transportation engineering, 132(12), 970-978.

Martinez-Arguelles, G., Giustozzi, F., Crispino, M., & Flintsch, G. W. (2015). Laboratory investigation on mechanical performance of cold foamed bitumen mixes: bitumen source, foaming additive, fiber-reinforcement and cement effect. Construction and Building Materials, 93, 241-248.

Modarres, A., & Ayar, P. (2016). Comparing the mechanical properties of cold recycled mixture containing coal waste additive and ordinary Portland cement. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 17(3), 211-224.

Nosetti, A., Pérez-Jiménez, F., Martínez, A., & Miró, R. (2016). Effect of hydrated lime and cement on moisture damage of recycled mixtures with foamed bitumen and emulsion. Transportation Research Board 95th Annual Meeting (No. 16-5430).

Oluwaseyi, L. O. (2010). A study on the development of guidelines for the production of bitumen emulsion stabilised RAP for roads in the tropics, Doctoral dissertation, University of Northampton.

Praticò, F., Vaiana, R., & Giunta, M. (2013). Pavement sustainability: permeable wearing courses by recycling porous European mixes. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 19(3), 186-192.

Technical Specification Transport and Main Roads Specifications MRTS09 Plant-Mixed Pavement Layers Stabilised Using Foamed Bitumen. (2015). Transport and Main Roads Specifications, Queensland.

Thenoux, G., González, Á., & Dowling, R. (2007). Energy consumption comparison for different asphalt pavements rehabilitation techniques used in Chile. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 49(4), 325-339.

Technical Guideline-2. (2009). Technical guideline: bitumen stabilised materials: a guide for the design and construction of bitumen emulsion and foamed bitumen stabilised materials (1rst ed.). Asphalt Academy, Pretoria, South Africa.

Wirtgen, F. (2004). Cold recycling manual. Windhagen, Alemania.Wirtgen, Gmb. H. (2012). Cold recycling-wirtgen cold recycling technology (1st ed.). Germany. Retrieved from

Send mail to Author

Send Cancel