Verification of floor planarity by trigonometrical measurement of heights on a 5-storey monolithic building
Currently, trigonometric levelling is becoming increasingly widespread, mainly due to the increase in accuracy of stations that can measure angles with seconds and distances with submillimetre accuracy. The paper deals with the analysis of the sources of errors affecting the accuracy of results. It also describes a design of observational methodology that excludes or significantly reduces the impact of systematic errors or other errors occurring during the measurements process, in order to achieve the highest accuracy of the determined height difference. Therefore, under certain conditions, it is possible to achieve the accuracy of determining a height difference of up to 0.10 mm using this method. Furthermore, by the practical example, the description of the use of trigonometric levelling from the centre when verifying the floor planarity of a 5-storey monolithic building is also presented in the paper. The skeletal structure made of concrete floors supported by beams is the main structural element of the building. The finished floors showed visible deformations. Therefore, before the continuation of further construction, the control height measurement of all above-ground floors was necessary in order to ensure the safety in terms of stability and subsequent correction of the project. The resulting floor planarity is graphically visualised and analysed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Böhm, J., Radouch, V., & Hampacher, M. (1990). Teorie chyb a vyrovnávací počet [Theory of errors and adjustment computations]. Geodetický a kartografický podnik Praha (in Czech).
Ceylan, A., Inal, C., & Sanlioglu, I. (2005, April 16–21). Modern height determination techniques and comparison of accuracies. From Pharaohs to Geoinformatics, FIG Working Week 2005 and GSDI-8. Cairo, Egypt. Retrieved from https://www.fig.net/resources/proceedings/fig_proceedings/cairo/papers/ts_33/ts33_05_ceylan_etal.pdf
Drabiková, E. (2016). Quantitative method DEA for economic analysis of efficiency. Engineering education in the 21st century (pp. 35-38). Košice, TU. ISBN 978-80-553-2570-5.
Dušek, R., & Skořepa, Z. (2010). Střední chyba ve všech směrech [Mean error in all directions]. Geodetický a kartografický obzor, 56(1), 12-17. Praha (in Czech). Retrieved from http://archivnimapy.cuzk.cz/zemvest/cisla/Rok201001.pdf
El-Ashmawy, K. (2014). Accuracy, time cost and terrain independence comparisons of levelling techniques. Geodesy and Cartography, 40(3), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.3846/20296991.2014.962727
El-Ashmawy, K. (2017). Developing and testing a method for deformations measurements of structures. Geodesy and Cartography, 43(1), 35-40. https://doi.org/10.3846/20296991.2017.1305545
Gašinec, J., & Gašincová, S. (2009). Estimation vertical components of refraction from terrestrial and satellite geodetic measuring. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 14 (Special 1), 47-53. Retrieved from https://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2009/s1/8gasinec.pdf
Jordan, W., Eggert, O., & Kneissl M. (1956). Handbuch der Vermessungskunde Band 3 – Höhenmessung – Tachymetrie. Stuttgart, Metzler.
Pospíšilová, L., Pospíšil, J., & Staňková, H. (2012). Micro-network creation in industrial surveying. Geodesy and Cartography, 38(2), 70-74. https://doi.org/10.3846/20296991.2012.692216
Sokol, Š., & Bajtala, M. (2014). The elimination of vertical refraction in trigonometric measurements of height differences. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 19(2), 90-94. Retrieved from https://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2014/n2/6Sokol.pdf
Vykutil, J. (1983). Teorie chyb a vyrovnávací počet [Theory of errors and adjustment computations]. Ediční středisko VUT, Brno (in Czech).
Zhang, Z., Zhang, K., Deng, Y., & Luo, Ch. (2005). Research on precise trigonometric leveling in place of first order leveling. Geo-spatial Information Science, 8(4), 235-239. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02838654
Zhou, X., & Sun, M. (2013). Study on accuracy measure of trigonometric leveling. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 329, 373-377. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.329.373