Education and gender-based differences in employee motivation

    Miloš HITKA Affiliation
    ; Ľudmila KOZUBÍKOVÁ Affiliation
    ; Marek POTKÁNY Affiliation


The main purpose of this article is to show dependencies between education and gender based on selected motivation factors. In order to obtain relevant data, the questionnaire method was used. In the years 2013–2016, 26,416 respondents participated. Descriptive statistics was used for data processing; the relationship between two categorical variables was verified by the chi-quadrate test and Tukey’s HSD test. The results of the research proved the hypotheses; i.e. that there are significant differences in motivation factors among Slovak employees related to their gender and education. The most significant motivation factors included basic salary, job security and a good working team. The paper presents an original verifiable methodology that can be used in research of a similar focus in other European countries. The research results point to the potential of various alternatives for business managers responsible for preparing incentive motivation programmes related to the analysed factors.

Keyword : employee motivation, gender differences, education differences, motivation programme, quadratic chi-quadrate statistics, Slovakia

How to Cite
HITKA, M., KOZUBÍKOVÁ, Ľudmila, & POTKÁNY, M. (2018). Education and gender-based differences in employee motivation. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 19(1), 80-95.
Apr 30, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Arnania-Kepuladze, T. 2010. Gender stereotypes and gender feature of job motivation: differences or similarity? Problems and Perspectives in Management 8(2): 84–93.

Buttner, E. 1993. Female entepreneurs: How far have they come?, Business Horizons 36(March-April): 59–65.

Chromjaková, F. 2016. The key principles of process manager motivation in production and administration processes in an industrial enterprise, Journal of Competitiveness 8(1): 95–110.

DeMartino, R.; Barbato, R. 2003. Differences between women and men MBA entrepreneurs: exploring family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators, Journal of Business Venturing 18(6): 815–832.

Eskildsen, J. K.; Nussler, M. L. 2003. The managerial drivers of employee satisfaction and loyalty, Total Quality Management 11(4–6): 581–588.

Fiľa, M.; Schwarczová, L.; Mura, L. 2015. Citizen satisfaction survey as a tool of citizen relationship management of local government in Slovakia, Serbian Journal of Management 10(1): 117–129.

Freund, A. M. 2006. Age-differential motivational consequences of optimization versus compensation focus in younger and older adults, Psychology and Aging 21(2): 240–252.

Hitka, M.; Balážová, Ž. 2015. The impact of age, education and seniority on motivation of employees, Business: Theory and Practice 16(1): 113–120.

Hitka, M.; Hajduková, A.; Balážová, Ž. 2014. Impact of the economic crisis on the change in motivation of employees of woodworking industry enterprise, Drvna industrija 65(1): 21–26.

Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, Journal of Marketing 67(2): 151–153.

Inceoglu, I.; Segers, J.; Bartram, D. 2012. Age-related differences in work motivation, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 85(2): 300–329.

Irum, S.; Sultana, A.; Ahmed, K.; Mehmood, N. 2012. Work motivation differences in public and private sector (A study of higher education institutes in Pakistan), Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4(6): 685–699.

Kampf, R.; Ližbetinová, L. 2015. The identification and development of talents in the environment of logistics companies, Naše more 62(3): 139–142.

Kanfer, R.; Ackerman, P. L. 2004. Aging, adult development, and work motivation, The Academy of Management Review 29(3): 440–458.

Lorincová, S.; Schmidtová, J.; Javorčíková, J. 2016. Employee job satisfaction in furniture manufacturing companies in the Slovak Republic, Drvna Industrija 67(4): 351–362.

Lussier, R. N.; Achua Ch. F. 2013. Leadership: theory, application, and skill development. 5th ed. South-Western: Erin Joyner.

Meece, J. L.; Glienke, B. B.; Burg, S. 2006. Gender and motivation, Journal of School Psychology 44(5): 351–373.

Milne, P. 2007. Motivation, incentives and organisational culture, Journal of Knowledge Management 11(6): 28–38.

Moran, A.; Kilpatrick, R.; Abbott, L.; Dallat, J.; McClune, B. 2001. Training to teach: motivating factors and implications for recruitment, Evaluation and Research in Education 15(1): 17–32.

Nadeem, M.; Rana, M. S.; Lone, A. H.; Maqbool, S.; Naz, K.; Ali, A. 2011. Teacher’s competencies and factors affecting the performance of female teachers in Bahawalpur (Southern Punjab) Pakistan, International Journal of Business and Social Science 2(19): 217–222.

Nguyen, L. D.; Mujtaba, B. G.; Ruijs, A. 2014. Stress, task, and relationship orientations of Dutch: do age, gender, education, and government work experience make a difference?, Public Organization Review 14(3): 305–324.

Pacáková, V. a kol. 2009. Štatistické metódy pre ekonómov. Bratislava: Iura Editon.

Peterson, M. 2004. What men and women value at work: implications for workplace health, Gender Medicine 1(2): 106–124.

Ryan, R. M.; Deci, E. L. 2000. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions, Contemporary Educational Psychology 25(1): 54–67.

Schmidtová, J.; Vacek, V. 2013. Applied statistics. Zvolen: Technická univerzita vo Zvolene.

Stachová, K.; Stacho, Z.; Pajtinková Bartaková, G. 2015. Influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration, Business: Theory and Practice 16(3): 264–270.

StatSoft, Inc. 2013. STATISTICA. Data analysis software system, version 12. Available from Internet:

Sumita, R. 2014. Motivational theories and incentives approaches, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore Management Review 16(4): 43–50.

Tohidi, H.; Jabbari, M. M. 2012. The effects of motivation in education, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 31: 820–824.

Urbancová, H. 2013. Competitive advantage achievement through innovation and knowledge, Journal of Competitiveness 5(1): 82–96.

Warr, P.; Birdi, K. 1998. Employee age and voluntary development activity, International Journal of Training and Development 2(3): 190–204.

Send mail to Author

Send Cancel