A computer model designed to evaluate the firefighting effectiveness of solid jet produced by water nozzle

    Jerzy GAŁAJ Affiliation
    ; Tomasz DRZYMAŁA Affiliation
    ; Ritoldas ŠUKYS Affiliation
    ; Piotr TOFIŁO Affiliation


The paper begins with a brief introduction and review of international research in the area of water jet streams and their effectiveness in firefighting. Then a general concept of a new numerical model for firefighting process using solid jet produced by water nozzle is presented. The provided description of the model includes main assumptions for extinguishing process and a set of relationships representing a mathematical model. The paper also includes block diagrams of the main program algorithms and procedures designed to determine the value of the surface and sprinkling intensity depending on the input data like nozzle dimensions, position etc. Input parameters which are necessary for the calculation are discussed, together with a general concept of the users input and output interfaces and simulation tests that can be performed using the developed model. Some selected simulation tests in tabular and graphical forms are included. Summary and general conclusions can be found at the end.

Keyword : extinguishing effectiveness, solid jet, water nozzle, computer extinguishing model, extinguishing process, computer model

How to Cite
GAŁAJ, J., DRZYMAŁA, T., ŠUKYS, R., & TOFIŁO, P. (2018). A computer model designed to evaluate the firefighting effectiveness of solid jet produced by water nozzle. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 24(1), 1-10.
Feb 22, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Babinsky, E.; Sojka, P. E. 2002. Modeling drop size distributions, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 28: 303–329.

Gałaj, J. 2009. A general concept of fire hybrid modelling in compartments, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 15(3): 237–245.

Gałaj, J.; Saramański, S. 2014. Studies on the impact of angular position and supply pressure on sprinkling area and intensity using solid jet produced by the nozzle PWT 52 TURBOSUPON, Logistics 5: 471–480 (in Polish).

Gałaj, J.; Koszykowski, R. 2014. Study on the impact of angular position and output of chosen water monitor on decomposition of solid jet into the spray, Logistics 6: 3736–3747 (in Polish).

Gałaj, J.; Drzymała, T. 2015. Analysis of the impact of water flow on sprinkling intensity by the spray produced by the nozzle Turbo Master 52, Logistics 5: 929–950 (in Polish).

Gałaj, J.; Konecki, M.; Sukys, R. 2016. Simulation tests of extinguishing process using mist nozzles with application of hybrid fire model, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 22(4): 573–583.

Grant, G.; Brenton, J.; Drysdale, D. 2000. Fire suppression by water sprays, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 26(2): 79–130.

Grimwood, P. 2002. Flashover & nozzle techniques. Tactical firefighting. London: CEMAC.

Marshall, A. W.; di Marzo, M. 2004. Modeling aspects of sprinkler spray dynamics in fires, Process Safety and Environmental Protection 82(B2): 97–104.

Myers, T.; Marshall, A. W. 2016. A description of the initial fire sprinkler spray, Fire Safety Journal 84: 1–7.

Novozhilov, V. 2007. Optimum water sprays for firefighting. AOSFT 7.

Orzechowski, Z.; Prywer, J. 2008. Production and application of fluid spray. Warsaw: WNT (in Polish).

Piątek, P. 2016. Analysis of the impact of inclination angle on distribution of droplets diameters in a spray produced by the nozzle Turbo master 52: Master thesis. Warsaw: SGSP (in Polish).

Placek, P. 2011. Water equipment and fitting. Warsaw (in Polish).

PN EN 671-1:2012 Fixed extinguishing system, internal hydrants, internal hydrants with semi-rigid hose. Polish standard.

Ren, N.; Baum, H. R.; Marshall, A. W. 2011. A comprehensive methodology for characterizing sprinkler sprays, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 33(2): 2547–2554.

Salyers, B. E. 2010. Spray characteristics from fire hose nozzles: Master thesis. University of Maryland.

Särdqvist, S. 2016. Water and other extinguishing agents. Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Sweden. 336 p.

Svensson, S.; Särdqvist, S. 2002. Paper II: Fire tests in a large hall, using manually applied high – and low – pressure water sprays, in S. Svensson (Ed.). The operational problem of fire control. Lund: Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University.

Willi, J. M.; Madrzykowski, D.; Weinschenk, C. 2016. Impact of hose streams on air flows inside a structure. NIST Technical Note 1938.

White, J. P.; Vilfayeau, S.; Marshall A. W.; McDermott, R. J. 2017. Modeling flame extinction and reignition in large eddy simulations with fast chemistry, Fire Safety Journal 90: 72–85.

Wu, D.; Guillemin, D.; Marshall, A. W. 2007. A modeling basis for predicting the initial sprinkler spray, Fire Safety Journal 42: 283–294.

Yoon, S. S. 2005. Droplet distribution at the liquid core of a turbulent spray, Physics of Fluids 17: 035103.

Zbrożek, P.; Prasuła, J. 2009. The influence of water mist drop diameter on the efficiency of fires suppression and cooling, Safety and Fire Technique 3: 113–148 (in Polish).

Zheng, Y.; Ryder, N.; Marshall, A. W. 2010. Model development for predicting fire hose stream characteristics [online], [cited 22 Oct 2017]. Available from Internet:

Send mail to Author

Send Cancel