Published Feb 19, 2017
Choongwan KOO Taehoon HONG


The positive effectiveness of energy policy instruments such as national carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) and energy performance certificates can be achieved by encouraging the voluntary participation of the public in the energy-saving campaign. Towards this end, this study aimed to develop a dynamic incentive and penalty program for improving the energy performance of existing buildings. Four types of incentive programs and four types of penalty programs were established based on three comparison criteria. As a building-level, the first comparison criterion is the averaging approach based on similar cases that can be retrieved using a simplified case-based reasoning model. As a community-level, the second comparison criterion is one-step higher operational and letter rating than the grade of a given building. As a national-level, the third comparison criterion is the operational and letter rating as the minimum criteria for achieving the national CERT. In this study, an elementary school facility located in Seoul, South Korea was selected to validate the applicability of the developed program. As a result, besides the category benchmark, the various comparison criteria should be provided to the public to encourage the voluntary participation of the public in the energy-saving campaign.



policy on sustainable development, building energy performance certificate, incentive and penalty program, operational rating, voluntary participation, case-based reasoning

Alderson, H.; Cranston, G. R.; Hammond, G. P. 2012. Carbon and environmental footprinting of low carbon UK electricity futures to 2050, Energy 48: 96–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.04.011

Amecke, H. 2012. The impact of energy performance certificates: a survey of German home owners, Energy Policy 46: 4–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.01.064

Ashina, S.; Fujino, J.; Masui, T.; Ehara, T.; Hibino, G. 2012. A roadmap towards a low-carbon society in Japan using backcasting methodology: feasible pathways for achieving an 80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050, Energy Policy 41: 584–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.11.020

Bautista, S. 2012. A sustainable scenario for Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050 and its costs, Energy Policy 44: 331–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.01.060

Butala, V.; Novak, P. 1999. Energy consumption and potential energy savings in old school buildings, Energy and Buildings 29: 241–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(98)00062-0

Carbon Point System (CPS). 2015. [online], [cited 14 April 2015]. Available from Internet: http://www.cpoint.or.kr

Committee on Climate Change (CCC). 2010. The fourth carbon budget: reducing emissions through the 2020s. London, CCC.

Concerted Action (CA) EPBD. 2011a. Implementation of the EPBD in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: status in November 2010. EU, CA EPBD.

Concerted Action (CA) EPBD. 2011b. Implementation of the EPBD in Germany: status in November 2010. EU, CA EPBD.

Concerted Action (CA) EPBD. 2011c. Implementation of the EPBD in France: status in November 2010. EU, CA EPBD.

Dahan, H.; Cohen, S.; Rokach, L.; Maimon, O. 2014. Proactive Data Mining with Decision Tree. USA: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0539-3

Department for Community and Local Government (DCLG). 2008. The Government’s methodology for the production of operational ratings, display energy certificates and advisory reports. London, DCLG.

Department for Community and Local Government (DCLG). 2013. User Guide to the Calculation Tool for Display Energy Certificates (DEC) for Public Buildings. London, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAL), DCLG.

Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). 2012. UK emissions statistics: frequently asked questions. London, DECC.

Deparment of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). 2013. Exploring the use of Display Energy Certificates. London, DECC.

Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2012. Annual energy review 2011. Washington, DC, EIA.

Fuerst, F.; McAllister, P. 2011. The impact of energy performance certificates on the rental and capital values of commercial property assets, Energy Policy 39: 6608–6614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.08.005

Gomi, K.; Shimada, K.; Matsuoka, Y. 2010. A low-carbon scenario creation method for a local-scale economy and its application in Kyoto city, Energy Policy 38: 4783–4796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.026

Green Credit Card System (GCCS). 2015. [online], [cited 14 Apr. 2015]. Available from Internet: http://www.greencard.or.kr

Green Together (GT). 2015. [online], [cited 14 Apr. 2015]. Available from Internet: http://www.greentogether.go.kr

Hong, T.; Kim, H.; Kwak, T. 2012a. Energy-saving techniques for reducing CO2 emissions in elementary schools, Journal of Management in Engineering 28: 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.19435479.0000073

Hong, T.; Kim, J.; Koo, C. 2012b. LCC and LCCO2 analysis of green roofs in elementary schools with energy saving measures, Energy and Buildings 45: 229–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.11.006

Hong, T.; Koo, C.; Jeong, K. 2012c. A decision support model for reducing electric energy consumption in elementary school facilities, Applied Energy 95: 253–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.052

Hong, T.; Koo, C.; Kim, H. 2012d. A decision support model for improving a multi-family housing complex based on CO2 emission from electricity consumption, Journal of Environmental Management 112: 67–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.06.046

Hong, T.; Koo, C.; Park, S. 2012e. A decision support model for improving a multi-family housing complex based on CO2 emission from gas energy consumption, Building and Environment 52: 142–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.01.001

Hong, T.; Koo, C.; Kwak, T. 2013a. Framework for the implementation of a New Renewable Energy System in an educational facility, Applied Energy 103: 539–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.10.013

Hong, T.; Koo, C.; Kim, H.; Park, H.S. 2013b. Decision support model for establishing the optimal energy retrofit strategy for existing multi-family housing complexes, Energy Policy 66: 157–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.057

Hong, T.; Koo, C.; Kwak, T.; Park, H. S. 2014. An economic and environmental assessment for selecting the optimum new renewable energy system for educational facility, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29: 286–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.061

Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (IEEP). 2011. Implementing the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): featuring country reports 2010. Brussels, IEEP.

Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (IEEP). 2014. Energy Performance Indicators for Building Stocks (1st version). Germany, IEEP.

Intelligent Energy Europe Programme (IEEP). 2015. [online], [cited 15 Apr. 2015]. Available from Internet: http://episcope.eu

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis Report. Geneva, IPCC.

International Energy Agency (IEA). 2012. Energy technology perspectives 2012: scenarios and strategies to 2050. Paris, IEA.

Kelly, S.; Crawford-Brown, D.; Pollitt, M. G. 2012. Building performance evaluation and certification in the UK: is SAP fit for purpose?, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16: 6861–6878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.07.018

Kim, J.; Hong, T.; Koo, C. 2012. Economic and environmental evaluation model for selecting the optimum design of green roof systems in elementary schools, Environmental Science & Technology 46: 8475–8483. https://doi.org/10.1021/es2043855

Koo, C. 2014. A carbon integrated management system for monitoring, diagnosing and retrofitting the dynamic energy performance of existing buildings in a city, an urban organism: Doctoral Thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul.

Koo, C.; Hong, T. 2015. Development of a dynamic operational rating system in energy performance certificates for existing buildings: geostatistical approach and data-mining technique, Applied Energy 154: 254–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.003

Koo, C.; Hong, T.; Hyun, C. 2011. The development of a construction cost prediction model with improved prediction capacity using the advanced CBR approach, Expert Systems with Applications 38(7): 8597–8606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.01.063

Koo, C.; Hong, T.; Lee, M.; Park, H. S. 2013. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning, Environmental Science & Technology 47(9): 4829–4839. https://doi.org/10.1021/es303774a

Koo, C.; Hong, T.; Lee, M.; Park, H. S. 2014a. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for the existing residential buildings, Energy Policy 68: 218–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.12.068

Koo, C.; Kim, H.; Hong, T. 2014b. Framework for the analysis of low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon Emissions reduction target: focused on educational facilities, Energy Policy 73: 356–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.009

Koo, C.; Hong, T.; Kim, J.; Kim, H. 2015. An integrated multi-objective optimization model for establishing the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon emissions reduction target for residential buildings, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 49: 410–425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.120

Korea Ministry of Environment (KME). 2011. A roadmap for low-carbon green society 2020. Seoul, South Korea, KME.

Korean Educational Statistics Service (KESS). 2015. [online], [cited 14 Apr. 2015]. Available from Internet: http://www.kess.kedi.re.kr

Korean Government (KG). 2011. Greenhouse gas reduction targets by sectors and years. Seoul, South Korea, KG.

Lee, M.; Koo, C.; Hong, T.; Park, H.S. 2014. Framework for mapping of monthly average daily solar radiation using advanced case-based reasoning and geographic information system, Environmental Science & Technology 48(8): 4604–4612. https://doi.org/10.1021/es405293u

Majcen, D.; Itard, L. C. M.; Visscher, H. 2013. Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: discrepancies and policy implications, Energy Policy 54: 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.008

Marchio, D.; Rabl, A. 1991. Energy-efficient gas heated housing in France: predicted and observed performance, Energy and Buildings 17: 131–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7788(91)90005-N

Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM). 2012. The Act on the Promotion of Green Buildings. Seoul, South Korea, MLTM.

Murphy, L.; Meijer, F.; Visscher, H. 2012. A qualitative evaluation of policy instruments used to improve energy performance of existing private dwellings in the Netherlands, Energy Policy 45: 459–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.02.056

Sunikka, M. 2005. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): improving the energy efficiency of the existing housing stock. Delft University of Technology (DUT): Delft.

The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). 2009. Towards an energy efficient European building stock. London, RICS.

Thollander, P.; Rohdin, P.; Moshfegh, B. 2012. On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors, Energy Policy 42: 461–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.012

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). 1998. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Kyoto, UNFCCC.

Wang, R.; Liu, W.; Xiao, L.; Liu, J.; Kao, W. 2011. Path towards achieving of China’s 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level, Energy Policy 39: 2740–2747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.02.043

Weiss, J.; Dunkelberg, E.; Vogelpohl, T. 2012. Improving policy instruments to better tap into home-owner refurbishment potential: Lessons-learned from a case study in Germany, Energy Policy 44: 406–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.02.006

Winyuchakrit, P.; Limmeechokchai, B.; Matsuoka, Y.; Gomi, K.; Kainuma, M.; Fujino, J.; Suda, M. 2011. Thailand’s low-carbon scenario 2030: analyses of demand side CO2 mitigation options, Energy for Sustainable Development 15: 460–466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2011.09.002

Zero Carbon Hub (ZCH). 2011. Energy performance of building directive: introductory guide to the recast EPBD-2. London, ZCH.

Zurigat, Y. H.; Al-Hinai, H.; Jubran, B. A.; Al-Masoudi, Y. S. 2003. Energy efficient building strategies for school buildings in Oman, International Journal of Energy Research 27: 241–253. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.871