At an isolated signalized intersection, short left-turn lanes may be provided to enhance intersection capacity and level of service. The capacity of an entire intersection depends not only on the effective green time per phase and the length of each short left-turn lane but also on the selected signal phase plan. This paper enumerates 16 typical signal phase plans for a four-leg intersection with protected left-turn phases. Given the existence of short left-turn lanes and the freedom to select signal phase plans, two optimization models are formulated. Numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the application of these models and show the sensitivity of the outcomes to impact factors. The orthogonal experiments show that the primary factor is whether a short left-turn lane is added on an approach and the demand distribution is the secondary factor in determining an optimal allocation of the time-space resources of an intersection. To analyse traffic flow operations under different signal phase sequences, the simulation tests are fulfilled using VISSIM under the assumption that the components of a signal phase plan and green splits are all identical. The simulated results indicate that the signal phase sequence for a specified approach may greatly affect traffic movements at an approach, and the leading green phasing is better than the lagging one for a specified approach when the left-turn bay length is short at the approach. Finally, two variations of the developed models are recommended for use and the procedure for the model application is provided in practice.
isolated intersections, signal phase plan, lane length, signal timing, left-turn lanes, capacity-to-delay ratio
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