Airport typology for LCC policy changes: a European perspective
This paper proposes a new airport typology that might arise from the expansion of airports with dominant low cost carrier traffic. In the first part of the paper, the typologies and different airport categorizations are reviewed with examples of current taxonomies used by principal international organizations. However, none of the current airport taxonomies takes into account low cost (LCC) carriers and cannot be used to create an airport market strategy with LCC operation. The paper highlights the characteristic of LCC features, the differences between the LCC airlines, and the characteristics of secondary – low cost airports. Finally, the paper proposes a new taxonomy of airports with low cost operations based on the airport data analysis and expert panel elucidation. For identification of airports with a high share of low cost carriers, Eurocontrol 2013 data on airline types and movements were used. The novel classification of low cost airports enables management to design marketing strategies to respond to LCC dominance and its implications. The main contribution of this research is to provide a novel classification for low cost airports which is relatively new phenomenon comparing with the problems of full service carriers dominance at large airports.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Airportwatch. (2017). SAS raises $75 million from Heathrow slot sale – virgin uses its slots as collateral. http://www.airport-watch.org.uk/2017/03/sas-raises-75-million-from-heathrow-slot-sale-virgin-uses-its-slots-as-collateral/
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). (2016). https://www.thefreedictionary.com/typology
ATG, Air Transport Group. (2002). Study on competition between airports and the application of state aid rules. http://ec.europa.eu/competition/sectors/transport/reports/airports_competition_2.pdf
Aviation strategy. (2001). Ryanair and its secondary airport policy. Aviation strategy, 41 (March), 83–94.
Barrett, S. (2004a). How do the demands for airport services differ between full-service carriers and low cost carriers? Journal of Air Transport Management, 10(1), 33–39. http://www.bcg.com/documents/file14335.pdf
Barrett, S. D. (2004b, February 20). Airports and communities in a deregulated market. Paper to Hamburg Aviation Conference (p. 120). Trinity College, Dublin. https://web.archive.org/web/20110719034324/http://www.hamburg-aviation-confer-ence.de/pdf/present2004/Session4_Panel_Barrett.pdf
Barret, S. (2017). Air transport liberalization: the case of Ireland (p. 88). In M. Finger & K. Button (2017), Air transport liberalization. Critical Assesment, Elgar publishing.
CAPA. (2015). CAPA – Centre For Aviation. http://centreforaviation.com/data/airports/
Collins COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary. (2018). HarperCollins Publishers. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/typology
de Neufville, R. (2007). Low-cost airports for low-cost airlines: flexible design to manage the risks. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Engineering Systems Division, 2007-03. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/102891
Diaconu, L. (2012). The evolution of the European Low-cost Airlines’ business models. Ryanair Case Study. Elsevier Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62 (24 October), 342–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.054
Eurocontrol. (2014). Airports in European air network. http://www.eurocontrol.int/sites/default/files/content/documents/official-documents/trends-in-air-traffic/tat3-airports-in-european-air-network.pdf
European Commission. (2005). 2005/C 312/01 Communication from the commission – Community guidelines on financing of airports and start – up aid to airlines departing from regional airports (p. 4, para 12). https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52005XC1209(03)&from=EN
FAA. (2009). Report to Congress. NPIAS 2011–2015. http://www.faa.gov/airports/planning_capacity/npias/reports/media/2009/npias_2009_narrative.pdf
Fernandes, E., Pacheco, R. R., & Braga, M. E. (2014). Brazilian airport economics from a geographical perspective. Journal of Transport Geography, 34, 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.11.003
Francis, G., Humpreys, I., Ison, S., & Aicken, M. (2006). Where next for low cost airlines? A spatial and temporal comparative study. Journal of Transport Geography, 14, 83–94 (2nd ed.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2005.05.005
Gupta, U. G., & Clarke, R. E. (1996). Theory and applications of the Delphi technique: A bibliography (1975–1994). Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 53(2), 185–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1625(96)00094-7
Gutierrez, O. (1989). Experimental techniques for information requiremets analysis. Information and Management, 16, 31–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7206(89)90025-6
Hansen, L. (ed.). (2007–2011). The linnaeus apostles – global science & adventure (8 vols, 11 books). The IK Foundation & Company.
Huutoniemi, K., Klein, J. T., Bruun, H., & Hukkinen, J. (2010). Analyzing interdisciplinarity: Typology and indicators. Research Policy, 39(1), 79–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2009.09.011
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (2013, July). Annex 14 Aerodromes, Vol. I. In Aerodrome Design and Operations (6th ed.), para 1.6.2 to 1.6.4. Montreal.
International Civil Aviation Organization STA/10-WP/7 (ICAO). (2009, 23–27 November). Review of the classification and definitions used for civil aviation. In Tenth session of the statistics division. Montréal. http://www.icao.int/Meetings/STA10/Documents/Sta10_Wp007_en.pdf
Kalemba, N., Campa-Planas, F., Hernández-Lara, A-B., & Sánchez-Rebull, M. V. (2017). Service quality and economic performance in the us airline business. Aviation, 21(3), 102–110. https://doi.org/10.3846/16487788.2017.1378266
Kazda, A. (1985). Obchodná prevádzková činnosť, vybrané state (p. 22). Alfa Bratislava, výmer. č. 3430/84.
Kazda, A., & Caves, R. (2015). Airport design and operation (3rd ed.) (pp. 25–27). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kazda, A., Hromadka, M., & Mrekaj, B. (2017). Small regional airports operation: unnecessary burdens or key to regional development. Transportation Research Procedia, 28, 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.169
Kerensky, L. (2007). World’s best low-cost carriers, 10 08 2007. http://www.forbes.com/2007/08/09/travel-carriers-affordable-forbeslife-cx_lk_0809biztravel.html
Kriel, E., & Walters, J. (2016). Passenger choice attributes in choosing a secondary airport: A study of passenger attributes in using Lanseria International Airport. Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management (JTSCM), 10(1), (2016). https://doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v10i1.256
Petrović, M., Mlinarić, T. J., & Šemanjski, I. (2019). Location planning approach for intermodal terminals in urban and suburban rail transport. Promet – Traffic & Transportation, 31(1), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.7307/ptt.v31i1.3034
Ray, P., & Sahu, S. (1990). Productivity management in India: A Delphi Study. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 10, 25–51. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443579010005245
Rowe, G., & Wright, G. (2001). Expert opinions in forecasting: role of the Delphi Technique. In J. S. Armstrong (Ed.), Principles of forecasting: a handook of researchers and practitioners. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-306-47630-3_7
Rowe, G., Wright, G., & Bolger, F. (1991). Delphi: Re-evaluation of research and theory. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 39, 235–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625(91)90039-I
Sedláčková, A. N., & Lokaj, P. (2017). Comparative analysis of U-fly and value alliance and global alliances. Paper presented at the Transportation Research Procedia, 28, 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.165
Sedláčková, A. N., & Novák, A. (2010). Simulation at the Bratislava airport after application of directive 2009/12/EC on airport charges. Transport and Telecommunication, 11(2), 50–59.
Turiak, M. (2015). Airport typology impact of low cost carriers operations (PhD Thesis). University of Žilina.
Vogel, H.-A. (2016). Challenges of airport economics for financial management. Journal of Airport Management, 10(3), 416–435.
Warnock-Smith, D., & Potter, A. (2005). An exploratory study into airport choice factors for European low-cost airlines. Journal of Air Transport Management, 1(11), 388–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2005.05.003
Zuidberg, J. (2017). Exploring the determinants for airport profitability: Traffic characteristics, low-cost carriers, seasonality and cost efficiency. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 101, 61–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2017.04.016