Airline pilot situation awareness: presenting a conceptual model for meta-cognition, reflection and education
The dissertation research summarized here, utilized the Grounded Theory Method to develop a conceptual model of pilot situation awareness from 223 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) narratives. The application of Latent Semantic Analysis aided the theoretical sampling of ASRS reports. A multistage model was developed involving attention, perception, interpretation, decision making, and action in support of goal-driven behavior. Narrative report coding identified several categories of situation awareness elements that pilots direct their attention to in building and maintaining situation awareness. Internal to the aircraft, flight crews directed their attention to the aircraft’s flight state and automation state. They also directed their attention to the condition of the aircraft, the functioning of the crew, and the status of the cabin. External to the aircraft, flight crews directed their attention to airport conditions, air traffic control, terrain, traffic, and weather. Pilots were also aware of the passage of time. Twelve characteristics of situation awareness were identified from narrative report coding which were subsequently compared with existing theoretical perspectives of situation awareness.
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