Methodical aspects of the LTO cycle use for environmental impact assessment of air operations based on the Warsaw Chopin airport
The aviation engines homologation process takes place in LTO (Landing and Take-Off) test cycle. Mentioned procedure is good for the approval applications because the test conditions are repeatable and obtained results could be compared between different engines. The authors compared in this article the exhaust emission results obtained in LTO test cycle during selected engine homologation with values obtained in estimations. Two Allied Signal TFE731-2-2B engines with a thrust of 15.6 kN were taken into considerations. The engines are used to propel the popular VLJ (Very Light Jet) aircraft: Dassault Falcon 100. Adopted methodology of emission estimation is very similar to the LTO, because the authors use the emission factors obtained in LTO cycle, specified for selected engines. Also, the duration of take-off, climb-out and approach LTO phases were adopted to the estimations. In the analyzed case, 16 scenarios of taxi phase were selected on the basis of the Warsaw Chopin Airport available runways. Duration of taxi phase in these cases vary between 3.1 to 11.0 minutes which is at least 58% less than in LTO test. Assuming the real taxi times change the exhaust emission results comparing to normal LTO cycle up to about 64%. The proposed methodology could be used for assessing environmental impact of air operations, which can be used to create the reports with more accurate data than with typical LTO times.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aviation & Marketing International [AMI]. (2021). TFE731 engines for sale. https://turbineengine.com/tfe731-engines-for-sale/
Airbus. (2016). Global Market Forecast. Airbus S.A.S. France.
EASA. (2021). ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank. https://www.easa.europa.eu/icao-aircraft -engine-emissions-databank
Galant, M., & Merkisz, J. (2017). Analysis of the possibilities of using EEG in assessing pilots’ psychophysical condition. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology – Series Transport, 95, 39–46. https://doi.org/10.20858/sjsutst.2017.95.4
Galant, M., Nowak, M., Kardach, M., Maciejewska, M., & Legowik, A. (2019). Using the simulation technique to improve efficiency in general aviation. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 2078(1), 020097. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5092100
Górecka, A. (2012). Airport throughput – the case of Frederic Chopin International Airport in Warsaw [Conference presentation]. Carpathian Logistics Conference, Jesenik, Czech Republic, EU.
Globalair. (2021). Falcon 100. https://www.globalair.com/aircraft-for-sale/Specifications?specid=201
International Civil Aviation Organization [ICAO]. (2011). Airport Air Quality Manual. Doc. 9889. ICAO.
International Civil Aviation Organization [ICAO]. (2008). Annex 16: Environmental protection, Vol. I: Aircraft noise (4th ed.). ICAO.
Jasiński, R. (2019). Particle emission parameter analysis from multirole fighter aircraft engine. In 2nd International Conference on the Sustainable Energy and Environmental Development, IOP Conference Series, Vol. 214, 012011, 1–7. Kraków, Poland. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/214/1/012011
Jasiński, R. (2018). Mass and number analysis of particles emitted during aircraft landing. In E3S Web of Conferences, Vol. 44, 00057. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20184400057
Jasiński, R. (2017). Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine. In MATEC Web Conferences, Vol. 118, 00023. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201711800023
Jasiński, R., Markowski, J., & Pielecha, J. (2017). Probe positioning for the exhaust emissions measurements. Procedia Engineering, 192, 381–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.066
Khammash, L., Mantecchini, L., & Reis, V. (2017, June). Microsimulation of airport taxiing procedures to improve operation sustainability: Application of semi-robotic towing tractor. In 2017 5th IEEE International Conference on Models and Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems (MT-ITS) (pp. 616–621). https://doi.org/10.1109/MTITS.2017.8005587
Markowski, J., Pielecha, J., & Jasinski R. (2017). Model to assess the exhaust emissions from the engine of a small aircraft during flight. Procedia Engineering, 192, 557–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.096
Merkisz, J., Galant, M., & Bieda, M. (2017). Analysis of operating instrument landing system accuracy under simulated conditions. Journal of Silesian University of Technology – Series Transport, 94, 163–173. https://doi.org/10.20858/sjsutst.2017.94.15
Nikoleris, T., Gupta, G., & Kistler, M. (2011). Detailed estimation of fuel consumption and emissions during aircraft taxi operations at Dallas/Fort Worth international airport. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16, 302–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2011.01.007
Nowak, M., Andrzejewski, M., Galant, M., & Rymaniak, Ł. (2019). Simulation assessment of the selected combination of road and rail infrastructure in the aspect of choosing the route of road transport means. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 2078, 020055. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5092058
Nowak, M., Jasiński, R., & Galant, M. (2018). Implementation of the LTO cycle in flight conditions using FNPT II MCC simulator. Material Science and Engineering, 421(4), 042060, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/421/4/042060
Nowak, M., & Pielecha, J. (2017). Comparison of exhaust emission on the basis of Real Driving Emissions measurements and simulations. In MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol. 118, 00026, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201711800026
Prakash, A. (2016, 25–27 July). Prediction of NOx Emissions for an RQL aero-engine combustor using a stirred reactor modelling approach [Conference presentation]. 52nd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. Salt Lake City, United States.
Postorino, M. N., Mantecchini, L., & Paganelli, F. (2019). Improving taxi-out operations at city airports to reduce CO2 emissions. Transport Policy, 80, 167–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.09.002
Warshaw Chopin Airport. (2021). https://www.lotnisko-chopina.pl
World Health Organization. (2018). Ambient (outdoor) ait pollution. WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health
Zaporozhets, O., & Synylo, K. (2016, 29 May–1 June). Improvements on aircraft engine emission and emission inventory assessment inside the airport area. Energy, 140(Part 2), 1350–1357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.07.178