Analysis of fleet type impact on the threats and errors of an airline using Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)
In this study, three Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSAs) on an airline are carried out, their results are compared with each other, and a comparison is also made between domestic and international fleets. The LOSA is a proactive and predictive method in the Safety Management System that detects the strengths and weaknesses of airline performance under normal operations. Furthermore, it is a tool to improve the safety margin. The LOSA process is implemented on the basis of ten operating characteristics. Once the data for each LOSA was gathered and processed, the results for the three were compared. Surveys show that LOSAs provide a monitoring system for the Threat and Error Management of old generation aircraft. Domestic and international airline fleets confront different types of threats and errors in different flight phases. It is concluded that the syllabuses of training courses should be different for flight crew with respect to their fleet and the threat and error types. That are most common the obtained results can promote the importance of airlines’ Threat and Error Management based on their fleet type in the future.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Burdekin, S. (2003). Mission Operations Safety Audits (MOSA): measurements of behavioral performance or non-technical skills from military aircrew, Aviation Safety Spotlight 0403. Canberra.
Earl, L., Peregonzalez, J., & Frey, B. (2007). Adaptation of Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) to Single Pilot Operations (LOSA: SP). Retrieved from http://www.asasi.org/
Federal Aviation Administration. (2006). Advisory circular: line operations safety audits (AC NO: 120-90).
Flight Safety Foundation. (2016, December). Basic aviation risk standard offshore safety performance requirements implementation guidelines (Version 3). Melbourne, Australia.
Helmreich, L. R., Klinect, R. J., & Wilhelm, A. J. (1999). Models of threat, error, and CRM in flight operations. In The 10th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. The Ohio State University, Columbus.
Henry, C. (2007). The Normal Operations Safety Survey (NOSS): measuring system performance in air traffic control. Safety system. In The 2nd Institution of Engineering and Technology International Conference on Safety Management. University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA.
International Civil Aviation Organization. (2013). Safety Management Manual (SMM). Doc 9859, AN/474. International Civil Aviation Authority, Montreal, Canada.
International Civil Aviation Organization. (2005). ICAO Accident Prevention Program (1st ed.). International Civil Aviation Organization.
International Civil Aviation Organization. (2002). Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA). Doc 9803, AN/761. International Civil Aviation Authority, Montreal, Canada.
Khoshkhoo, R. (2017). Adaptation of Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) to Dispatch Operations (DOSA). Journal of Airline and Airport Management, 7(2), 126-135. https://doi.org/10.3926/jairm.112
Khoshkhoo, R., Goodarzi, F., & Sharafbafi, F. (2011, November). Evaluation and enhancing of operational performance and training objective in accordance with Line Operations Safety Audit. In The 64th Annual International Air Safety Seminar. Flight Safety Foundation.
Khoshkhoo, R., Goodarzi, F., & Sharafbafi, F. (2013). Enhancing Operational Performance and Flight Safety Accordance with Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA). In The 12th Iranian Aerospace Society Conference Amirkabir University of Technology, AERO2013-16918. Tehran, Iran.
Klinect, J. R. (2005). Line Operations Safety Audit: a cockpit observation methodology for monitoring commercial airline safety performance (PhD Dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA
Klinect, J. R., Murray, P., Merritt, A., & Helmreich, R. (2003). Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA): definition and operating characteristics. In Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 663-668). The Ohio State University, Dayton, OH.
Klinect, J., Wilhelm, J., & Helmreich, R. (1999). Threat and error management: data from Line Operations Safety Audits. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA.
McDonald, A., Garrigan, B., & Kanse, L. (2006, February). Confidential Observations of Rail Safety (CORS): an adaptation of Line Operations Safety Audit. In The Swinburne University Multimodal Symposium on Safety Management and Human Factors. Melbourne, Australia.
Merritt, A., & Klinect, J. (2006, December). Defensive flying for pilots: an introduction to threat and error management. The University of Texas Human Factors Research Project, the LOSA Collaborative.
Murray, P. S. (2005). Airline safety is no accident, the Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) − closing the quality assurance loop. Qualcon.
Steckel, R. J. (2014). Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires (PhD Dissertation). The Saint Louis University. PreQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Stolzer, A. J., Harford, C. D., & Goglia, J. J. (2008). Safety managemt systems in aviation. USA: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Thomas, J. W. M. (2004). Predictors of Threat and Error Management: identification of core nontechnical skills and implications for training systems design. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(2), 207-231. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap1402_6
Wickens, C., Mavor, A., & McGee, P. (1997). Flight to the future: human factors in air traffic control. Washington: National Academy Press.