Share:


Re-explore the viability and authenticity of Gallup workplace audit in private university

Abstract

Purpose – Employee productivity is directly affected by the employee engagement. Researchers have continuously been focused on whether people working in the organisation are satisfied with the work or not. The Gallup 12 Workplace Audit is an instrument used to measure employee engagement. The purpose of this study is to re-explore the viability of this instrument in an educational context. The secondary objective of this study is to find out if The Gallup Work Audit instrument, which is an international survey, can be used in the educational sector in the context of India for measuring faculties’ engagement.


Research methodology – A cross-sectional analysis with grab sampling was used. Descriptive statistics, such as frequency counts, were used to describe the sample. Acceptable internal consistency was reached through exploratory factor analysis.


Findings – First results showed that none of the items needed to be eliminated from the scale and that the scale had very high reliability. Acceptable internal consistency was reached through an exploratory factor analysis which resulted in a one-factor model of work engagement.


Research limitations – The data collection for the study was limited to one major university, therefore generalisation the results must be done with great care.


Implications – This study helps universities to identify their critical drivers of employee engagement, and gives them a clear understanding of their construct.


Originality – This study is one of the first attempts to re-explore the viability and authenticity of Gallup Workplace Audit in educational institution (university level).

Keyword : Gallup, employee engagement, private university, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

How to Cite
Khanna, R. (2020). Re-explore the viability and authenticity of Gallup workplace audit in private university. Business, Management and Education, 18(2), 344-362. https://doi.org/10.3846/bme.2020.11999
Published in Issue
Oct 26, 2020
Abstract Views
89
PDF Downloads
62
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Akhtar, A., Nawaz, M. K., Mahmood, Z., & Shahid, M. S. (2016). Impact of high performance work practices on employees’ performance in Pakistan: Examining the mediating role of employee engagement. Pakistan Journal of Commerce Social Sciences, 10(3), 708–724.

Albdour, A. A., & Altarawneh, I. I. (2014). Employee engagement and organisational commitment: Evidence from Jordan. International Journal of Business, 19(2), 192–212.

Alfes, K., & Truss, C. (2013). The relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: Examining the mediating role of engagement. Human Resource Management, 52(6), 839–859. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21512

Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity & Performance Management, 63(3), 308–323. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2013-0008

Badal, S., & Harter, J. K. (2014). Gender diversity, business-unit engagement, and performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(4), 354–365. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813504460

Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., & Fletcher, L. (2017). The meaning, antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement: A narrative synthesis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19(1), 31–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12077

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Ten, B. L. L. (2012). Work engagement, performance, and active learning: The role of conscientiousness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 555–564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.08.008

Bal, M., & De Lange, A. (2015). From flexibility human resource management to employee engagement and perceived job performance across the lifespan: A multisampling study. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 88(1), 126–154. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12082

Benn, S., Teo, S., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492–510. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-10-2013-0179

BlessingWhite. (2006). Employee Engagement Report 2006. Skillman, N J.

Branham, F. L. (2006). E-Letter, 8, 1–3.

Buckingham, M., & Coffman, C. (1999). First, break all the rules: What the world’s greatest managers do differently. Simon and Schuster.

Burke, R. J., & Cooper, C. L. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: Challenges and new directions. Routledge.

Burkea, R. J., & Ngbe, E. (2006). The changing nature of work and organisations: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 86–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.006

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1982). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey Bass.

Coetsee, J. H. C. (2006). Barriers-to-change in a Governmental Service Delivery Type Organisation [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. University of Johannesburg (RAU), Johannesburg.

Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of the theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98–104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279602

Cook, S. (2012). The essential guide to employee engagement. Kogan Page.

De Beer, G. (2007). People issues – top the strategic agenda. Management Today, 23(7), 40–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0015-1882(07)70057-5

Demerouti, E., & Cropanzano, R. (2010). From thought to action: Employee work engagement and job performance. In A. B. Baker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 147–163). Psychology Press.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. (2009). Engaging for success: Enhancing performance through employee engagement. London.

Eldor, L., & Harpaz, I. (2016). A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its relationship with extra-role performance behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(2), 213–235. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2037

Eldor, L. (2017). Looking on the bright side: The positive role of organisational politics in the relationship between employee engagement and performance at work. Applied Psychology, 66(2), 233–259. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12090

Flemming, J. H., & Asplund, J. (2007). Where employee engagement happens. The Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http:/gmj.gallup.com/content/102496/where-EmployeeEngagement-Happens.aspx

Forbes. (2014). The crisis in worker engagement: The 2 things you should do about it. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2014/01/17/the-crisis-in-worker-engagement-the-2-things-you-should-do-about-it.htm

Gallup, Inc. (2017). State of the global workplace report. Washington.

Ghosh, P., Rai, A., Chauhan, R., Baranwal, G., & Srivastava, D. (2016). Rewards and recognition to engage private bank employees: Exploring the ‘obligation dimension’. Management Research Review, 39(12), 1738–1751. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-09-2015-0219

Goffman, E. (1961). Encounters. Penguine University Books.

Harter, J. K. (1999). The meta-analysis. In M. Buckingham & C. Coffman (Eds.), First, break all the rules: What the world’s greatest managers do differently. Simon and Schuster.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta- analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268–279. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268

Harter, J. K., Asplund, J. W., & Flemming, J. H. (2004). Human sigma: A meta-analysis. The relationship between employee engagement, customer engagement, and financial performance. The Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved May 6, 2016, from http://www.gallup.com/businessjournal/101956/humansigma-metaanalysis-relationship-between-employee-engag.aspx

Havenga, W., Wait, K., & Stanz, K. (2011). Evaluating the difference in employee engagement before and after business and cultural transformation interventions. African Journal of Business Management, 5, 22. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM10.1436

Heger, B. K. (2007). Linking the employee value proposition (EVP) to employee engagement and business outcomes: Preliminary findings from a linkage research pilot study. Organizational Development Journal, 25(2), 121–132.

Hewitt Associates LLC. (2004). Research Brief: employee engagement higher at double digit growth companies. Retrieved March 25, 2013, from www.hewitt.com

Janse van Rensburg, N. (2005). Leadership styles and work-related attitudes in subordinates [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. University of Johannesburg (RAU), Johannesburg.

Jaewon, Y. (2016). Perceived customer participation and work engagement: The path through emotional labor. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(7), 1009–1024. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-09-2015-0139

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724. https://doi.org/10.5465/256287

Klein, K. J., & Kozlowski, S. (2000). Multilevel theory research and methods in organisations. Jossey-Bass.

Konrad, A. M. (2006). Engaging employees through high-involvement work practices. Ivey Business Journal, 70(4), 1–7.

Kim, M. S., & Koo, D. W. (2017). Linking LMX, engagement, innovative behavior, and job performance in hotel employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(12), 3044–3062. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2016-0319

Koyuncu, M., Burke, R. J., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2006). Work engagement among women managers and professionals in a Turkish bank: Potential antecedents and consequences. Equal Opportunities International, 25(4), 299–310. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610150610706276

Labianca, G., Gray, B., & Brass, D. J. (2000). A grounded model of organisational schema change during empowerment. Organization Science, 11(2), 235–257. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.2.235.12512

Lawler, E. E. (2003). Treat people right. Jossey-Bass.

Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of twenty-first century. Annual Review Psychology, 56(1), 485–516. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142105

Lin, W., Wang, L., Bamberger, P. A., Zhang, Q., Wang, H., Guo, W., & Zhang, T. (2016). Leading future orientations for current effectiveness: The role of engagement and supervisor coaching in linking future work self-salience to job performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 92, 145–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.12.002

Langford, P. H. (2009). Measuring organisational climate and employee engagement: Evidence for a 7 Ps model of work practices and outcomes. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(4), 185–198. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530802579481

Luthans, F., & Peterson, S. J. (2002). Employee engagement and manager self-efficacy: implications for managerial effectiveness and development. Journal of Management Development, 21(5), 37687. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710210426864

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 77, 11–37. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915892

Müller, R., & Turner, R. (2010). Leadership competency pro-files of successful project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(5), 437–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.09.003

Mishra, S., & Mohanty, J. K. (2016). The predictors of employee engagement: A study in a ferro alloys company of India. Global Business Review, 17(6), 1441–1453. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150916660429

Mozammel, S., & Haan, P. (2016). Transformational leadership and employee engagement in the banking sector in Bangladesh. The Journal of Developing Areas, 50(6), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1353/jda.2016.0127

Newman, D. A., & Harrison, D. A. (2008). Been there, bottled that: are state and behavioral work engagement new and useful construct; wines’. Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 1, 31–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.00003.x

Nowack, K. (2006). Employee engagement, job satisfaction, retention and stress. Retrieved April 2011, from www.envisialearning.com

Obeidat, B. (2016). Exploring the relationship between corporate social responsibility, employee engagement, and organizational performance: The case of Jordanian mobile telecommunication companies. International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, 9, 361–386. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcns.2016.99032

Osman, K., & Mehmet, A. (2016). The effects of organisation mission fulfilment and perceived organisational support on job performance: the mediating role of work engagement. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(3), 368–387. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-12-2014-0171

Pinto, J. K., & Prescott, J. E. (1988). Variations in critical success factors over the stages in the project life cycle. Journal of Management, 14(1), 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638801400102

Pfeffer, J. (2003). Business and spirit: Management practices that sustain values. In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), The handbook of workplace spirituality and organisational performance (pp. 29–45). M. E. Sharpe.

Perrin, T. (2007). Closing the engagement gap: A road map for driving superior business performance. Retrieved May 6, 2016, from https://engageforsuccess.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Closingthe-engagement-gap-TowersPerrin.pdf

Purcell, J., Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S., Rayton, B., & Swart, J. (2003). Understanding the people and performance link: Unlocking the black box. CIPD.

Rahman, U. U., Rehman, C. A., Imran, M. K., & Aslam, U. (2017). Does team orientation matter? Linking work engagement and relational psychological contract with performance. Journal of Management Development, 36(9), 1102–1113. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-10-2016-0204

Rasheed, A., Khan, S., & Ramzan, M. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement: The case of Pakistan. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 4(4), 183–200.

Robertson-Smith, G., & Markwick, C. (2009). Employee engagement: A review of current thinking. Institute for Employment Studies.

Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement. Institute for Employment Studies.

Ruck, K., & Trainor, S. (2012, July). Developing internal communication practice that supports employee engagement [Conference presentation]. 19th International Public Relations Symposium, Bled, Slovenia.

Reijseger, G., Peeters, M. C., Taris, T. W., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2017). From motivation to activation: Why engaged workers are better performers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 32(2), 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-016-9435-z

Salahudin, S. N., Ramli, H. S., Alwi, M. N. R., Abdullah, M. S., & Rani, N. A. (2019, July). Employee engagement and turnover intention among Islamic bankers in Brunei Darussalam. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(2 Special Issue), 643–651.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–90. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326

Simpson, M. R. (2009). Engagement at work: A review of the literature International. Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(7), 1012–1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.05.003

Shuck, B. (2011). Integrative literature review: Four emerging perspectives of employee engagement: An integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review, 10(3), 304–328. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484311410840

Shuck, B., & Zigarmi, D. (2015). Psychological needs, engagement, and work intentions: A Bayesian multi-measurement mediation approach and implications for HRD. European Journal of Training and Development, 39(1), 2–21. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-08-2014-0061

Suhartanto, D., & Brien, A. (2018). Multidimensional engagement and store performance the perspective of frontline retail employees. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 67(5), 809–824. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-03-2017-0065

Sundaray, B. K. (2011). Employee engagement: A driver of organizational effectiveness. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(8), 53–59.

Vale, F. (2011). A measurement of employee engagement using the Gallup Q12 workplace audit [Unpublished Honours Dissertation]. National College of Ireland.

Verwey, A. (2007). Employee engagement. Unpublished.

Wildermuth, C., & Pauken, P. D. (2008). A Perfect math: decoding employee engagement – Part I: Engaging cultures and leaders. Industrial and Commercial Training, 40(3), 122–128. https://doi.org/10.1108/00197850810868603

Witemeyer, H. A. (2013). Employee engagement construct and instrument validation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Georgia State University, USA.

Zhong, L., Wayne, S. J., & Liden, R. C. (2016). Job engagement, perceived organisational support, highperformance human resource practices, and cultural value orientations: A cross‐level investigation, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(6), 823–844. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2076