Factors affecting Syrian female researchers’ experience during crisis: inductive approach
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore factors influencing Syrian female academic researchers’ experience in academic research in the field of business and economics studies.
Research Methodology – The research methodology follows a qualitative approach. The methodology is based on conducting focus groups with female academic researchers selected from Syrian public and private universities, to clarify any potential factors, which may be influencing women researchers’ experience. Subsequently, a semi-structured interview protocol is designed to be applied to this target group. A judgement-sampling technique is selected at Syrian public and private universities.
Findings – The research findings indicate that personality traits, passion for research, marital and maternal status are important micro-level factors are influencing female researchers’ experience. Academic work overload, an organisational culture of the institution, need for networking support with the business sector, are identified as meso factors. Finally, social culture and norms of the Middle Eastern societies, stereotyping and interpretation of religion are crucial factors at a macrolevel. The research develops a theoretical framework of dimensions, which may be influencing female academic researchers in the field of business and economics.
Research Limitation/Implications – The research limitation is associated with sampling size and geographical scope. Future studies could investigate a larger sample with representative geographical scopes, and employs theory testing approaches. Future research could also extend its investigation to examine further disciplines including science, mathematics, engineering and technology.
Practical Implications – The study provides practical advice to decision and policymakers examining employment and hiring structure and suggests evaluating policies associated with support with childcare providing on-campus childcare. The study advises introducing support mechanisms for improving the reward system and compensations schemes for academic researchers, encouraging the development and production of scientific research.
Originality/Value – There is no prior research on women researchers in Syria. This research is considered as a new perspective of women researchers in Syria during a sensitive time, which characterises Syria. The study provides a theoretical contribution associated with experiences of female researchers at faculties of business and economics in Syrian higher education.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Afiouni, F., Karam, C. M., & Makarem, Y. (2019). Contextual embeddedness of careers: Female “nonsurvivors” and their gendered relational context. Human Resources Management Journal, 30(3), 343–364. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12244
Azmeh, S. (2019). The relationship between e-learning service and student satisfaction a case study at the Syrian Virtual University (SVU). Business, Management and Education, 16(1), 49–71. https://doi.org/10.3846/bme.2019.7451
Al-Asfour, A., Tlaiss, H. A., Khan, S. A., & Rajasekar, J. (2017). Saudi women’s work challenges and barriers to career advancement. Career Development International, 22(2), 184–199. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2016-0200
Al-Lamky, A. (2007). Feminising leadership in Arab societies: The perspectives of Omani female leaders. Women in Management Review, 22(1), 49–67. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420710726229
Alberti-Alhtaybat, L., & Aazam, S. (2018). Female leadership in the Middle Eastern higher education. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 34(2), 90–107. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEAS-08-2016-0018
Aycan, Z. (2004). Key success factors for women in management in Turkey. Applied Psychology, 53(3), 453–477. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00180.x
Berg, B. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4th ed.). Pearson. http://repository.umpwr.ac.id:8080/bitstream/handle/123456789/3723/qualitative_research_methods_for_the_social_sciences.pdf?sequence=1
Bjerke, B., & Al-Meer, A. (1993). Culture’s consequences: Management in Saudi Arabia. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 14(2), 30–35. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739310032700
Blättel-Mink, B. (2008). Reinventing gender in higher education. Equal Opportunities International, 27(1), 107–111. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610150810844974
Bryman, A. (2013). Social research methods Bryman. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2015). Business research methods (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. https://books.google.com.my/books?hl=en&lr=&id=l7u6BwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=(Bryman+%26+Bell,+2015)&ots=AvRktdJUQl&sig=i1Iz0rJst1NPN8lSy7flARbOW6k&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=(Bryman %26 Bell%2C 2015)&f=false
Caldwell, J. C. (1982). The wealth flows theory of fertility decline. In Theory of fertility decline (pp. 333–351). Academic Press.
Caldwell, J. C. (2004). Social upheaval and fertility decline. Journal of Family History, 29(4), 382–406. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363199004267744
Cole, J. R., & Zuckerman, H. (1987). Marriage, motherhood and research performance in science. Scientific American, (February), 119–125. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0287-119
Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2014). Business research methods (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Dalati, S., & Al Hamwi, S. (2016). Sustainable development in higher education through service quality and price fairness: Empirical Evidence from private universities in Damascus, Syria. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 4(1), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2016.4.1(3)
Dalati, S., & Alchach, H. (2018). The effect of leader trust and knowledge sharing on staff satisfaction at work: Investigation of universities in Syria. Business, Management and Education, 16(1), 190–205. https://doi.org/10.3846/bme.2018.2852
Dalati, S. (2016). The impact of servant leadership on leadership sustainability: Empirical evidence from higher education in Syrian universities. The International Journal Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 3(3), 269–281. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2016.3.3(4)
Dalati, S., Raudeliuniene, J., & Davidaviciene, V. (2020). Innovations in the management of higher education: Situation analysis of Syrian female students empowerment. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 4, 245–254. https://doi.org/10.21272/mmi.2020.4-20
Dalati, S., Raudeliūnienė, J., & Davidavičienė, V. (2017). Sustainable leadership, organizational trust on job satisfaction: Empirical evidence from higher education institutions in Syria. Business, Management and Education, 15(1), 14–27. https://doi.org/10.3846/bme.2017.360
Davidson, M. J., & Cooper, C. (1987). Female managers in Britain – A comparative perspective. Human Resource Mamgement, 26(2), 217–242. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930260207
Davis, D., & Astin, H. S. (1987). Reputational standing in academe. Journal of Higher Education, 58(3), 261–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.1987.11778250
Frost, N., & Holt, A. (2014). Mother, researcher, feminist, woman: Reflections on “maternal status” as a researcher identity. Qualitative Research Journal, 14(2), 90–102. https://doi.org/10.1108/QRJ-06-2013-0038
Gardiner, M. (2005). Making a difference: Flinders University mentoring scheme for early career women researchers. Adelaide.
Gobat, J., & Kostial, K. (2016). Syria’s conflict economy (IMF Working Paper). International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2016/wp16123.pdf
Greenhaus, J., & Parasuraman, S. (1993). Job perfromance attribution and career advancement procpects: An examination of gender and race effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 55(2), 273–297. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1993.1034
Hensel, N. (1991). Realising gender equality in higher education: The need to integrate work/family issues. Washington DC.
Hofstede, G. (1994). The business of international business is culture. International Business Review, 3(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0969-5931(94)90011-6
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). 2004. Culture, leadership and organizations. Sage Publications.
Karam, C. M., & Afiouni, F. (2014). Localising women’s experiences in academia: Multi-level factors at play in the Arab Middle East and North Africa. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(4), 500–538. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.792857
Kaw, M., & Ahmad, S. (2014). Gender prejudice in the research world: Female researchers in a conflict zone, Kashmir. Library Review, 63(8/9), 684–699. https://doi.org/10.1108/LR-04-2013-0051
Khalifa, B., Ayoubi, R., & Hamadeh, F. (2015). Indexing Syrian internaitonal researchers: The Top 100 “SYR-INDEX”. Syria National Erasmus+ Office. http://www.mohe.gov.sy/MEHO/file/Indexing%20Syrian%20International%20Researchers%20The%20Top%20100.pdf
Littrell, R. F., & Bertsch, A. (2013). Traditional and contemporary status of women in the patriarchal belt. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 32(3), 310–324. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-12-2012-0122
Lobel, S. A., & St. Clair, L. (1992). Effects of family responsibilities, gender, and career identity salience on performance outcomes. The Academy of Management Journal, 35(5), 1057–1069. https://doi.org/10.5465/256540
Menges, R. J., & Exum, W. H. (1983). Barriers to the Progress of women and minority faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 54(2), 123–144. https://doi.org/10.2307/1981567
Moghadam, V. M. (2003). Modernizing women: Gender and social change in the Middle East (2nd ed.). Lynne Riener Publishers. https://www.rienner.com/uploads/47d98be66a50c.pdf
Moghadam, V. M. (2013). Gendering the Middle East and North Africa. In Modernizing women: Gender and social change in the Middle East (3rd ed., pp. 1–35). Lynne Riener Publishers.
Naguib, R., & Jamali, D. (2015). Female entrepreneurship in the UAE: A multi-level integrative lens. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 30(2), 135–161. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-12-2013-0142
Ramsay, E. (2001). Gender in the Australian higher education system. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 21(1/2), 105–117. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443330110789628
Reynolds, A. C., O’Mullan, C., Pabel, A., Martin-Sardesai, A., Alley, S., Richardson, S., Colley, L., Bousie, J., & McCalman, J. (2018). Perceptions of success of women early career researchers. Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, 9(1), 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1108/SGPE-D-17-00019
Sax, L. J., Hagedorn, L. S., Arredondo, M., & Dicrisi III, F. A. (2002). Faculty research productivity: Exploring the role of gender and family-related factors. Research in Higher Education, 43(4), 423–446. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015575616285
Sidani, Y. (2005). Women, work, and Islam in Arab societies. Women in Management Review, 20(7), 498–512. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420510624738
Sidani, Y. M., Konrad, A., & Karam, C. M. (2015). From female leadership advantage to female leadership deficit: A developing country perspective. Career Development International, 20(3), 273–292. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-01-2014-0009
Tharenou, P., & Conroy, D. (1994). Men and women managers advancement – Personal or situational determinants. Applied Psychology, 43(1), 5–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1994.tb00807.x
Tlaiss, H., & Kauser, S. (2011). Career success of Arab women managers: An empirical study in Lebanon. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 4(1), 43–61. https://doi.org/10.1108/17537981111111265
Tlaiss, H., & Kauser, S. (2010). Perceived organisational barriers to women’s career advancement in Lebanon. Gender in Management, 25(6), 462–496. https://doi.org/10.1108/17542411011069882
UNESCO. (2017). Women in Science. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and Application: Design and methods (6th ed.). Sage Publishing.
Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Busienss research methods (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.