Evaluation of open leadership and innovation orientation on employees and culture of the organization
In the production sector, where innovation and creativity activities are intensely realized, organizations need not only creativity activities but also process management in a successful organizational culture in order to be successful in the competitive environment in terms of both leadership and innovation activities. In terms of leadership, institutions need to be managed with a correct understanding. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships between open leadership, innovation orientation, employee creativity, organizational culture and process management variables. In this study, the effects of open leadership role on innovation and employee creativity activities and process management were investigated. At the same time, innovation orientation mediated effect was demonstrated. In the scope of aim of the study, a survey was conducted with 418 engineers working in the production sector. IBM SPSS 25 program, LISREL program and SOBEL calculation tool were used in the analysis. The data obtained were evaluated. Confirmatory and explanatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed on questions used Likert scale. In this study, it is concluded that the mediation variable effect of innovation orientation variable is on both organizational culture and creativity and process management.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Amabile TM (1983) The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag, 18. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5533-8
Amabile TM (1995) Attributions of creativity: what are the consequences? Creativity Research Journal 8 (4): 423-426. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326934crj0804_10
Anand G, Ward PT, Tatikonda MV, Schilling DA (2009) Dynamic capabilities through continuous improvement infrastructure. Journal of Operations Management 27 (6): 444-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2009.02.002
Anderson N, Potočnik K, Zhou J (2014) Innovation and creativity in organizations: A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework. Journal of Management 40 (5): 1297-1333. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314527128
Baer M, Oldham GR (2006) The curvilinear relation between experienced creative time pressure and creativity: moderating effects of openness to experience and support for creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (4): 963. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.963
Barker A (2002) Yenilikçiliğin Simyası, çev. Kardam, A, Mess Yayınları (391).
Boden MA (1990) The creative mind (253 p.). New York: Weidenfeld/Abacus & Basic Books.
Budak G (1998) Yenilikçi yönetim: yaratıcı birey. İstanbul, 1. Basım. Sistem Yayıncılık.
Büyüköztürk Ş (2014) Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı: İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum (Genişletilmiş 20. Baskı), Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Calantone RJ, Cavusgil ST, Zhao Y (2002) Learning orientation, firm innovation capability, and firm performance. Industrial Marketing Management 31 (6): 515-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-8501(01)00203-6
Cameron KS, Quinn RE (2011) Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. John Wiley & Sons.
Camic C (1986) The matter of habit. American Journal of Sociology 91 (5): 1039-1087. https://doi.org/10.1086/228386
Carbonell P, Rodríguez‐Escudero AI, Pujari D (2009) Customer involvement in new service development: An examination of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Product Innovation Management 26 (5): 536-550. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2009.00679.x
Castellion G (2012) Is the %80 Product Failure Rate Statistic Actually True http://www.quora.com/ProductManagement/Is-the-80-product-failure-rate-statisticactually-true
Castellion G, Markham SK (2013) Perspective: new product failure rates: influence of argumentum ad populum and selfinterest. Journal of Product Innovation & Management and Published JPIM 30: 976-979. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2012.01009.x
Černe M, Jaklič M, Škerlavaj M (2013) Authentic leadership, creativity, and innovation: A multilevel perspective. Leadership 9 (1): 63-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715012455130
Charbonnier-Voirin A, El Akremi A, Vandenberghe C (2010) A multilevel model of transformational leadership and adaptive performance and the moderating role of climate for innovation. Group & Organization Management 35 (6): 699-726. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601110390833
Chen IC, Ng HF, Li HH (2012) A multilevel model of patient safety culture: cross‐level relationship between organizational culture and patient safety behavior in Taiwan’s hospitals. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management 27 (1): 65-82. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.1095
Chen JS, Tsou HT, Huang AYH (2009) Service delivery innovation: antecedents and impact on firm performance. Journal of Service Research 12 (1): 36-55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670509338619
Choo AS, Linderman KW, Schroeder RG (2007) Method and psychological effects on learning behaviors and knowledge creation in quality improvement projects. Management Science 53 (3): 437-450. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1060.0635
Colbert BA (2004) The complex resource-based view: Implications for theory and practice in strategic human resource management. Academy of Management Review 29 (3): 341-358. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2004.13670987
Dension DR, Neale WS (1996) Dension organizational culture survey, Facilitator guide. Ann Arbor, MI: Aviat.
Deshpandé R, Farley JU, Webster Jr FE (1993) Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: a quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing 57 (1): 23-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299305700102
Dewey BI (2019) Open leadership for a vibrant future. Portal: Libraries and the Academy 19 (3): 359-364. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2019.0021
DiLiello TC, Houghton JD (2006) Maximizing organizational leadership capacity for the future: Toward a model of selfleadership, innovation and creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology 21 (4): 319-337. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610663114
Dragoni L (2005) Understanding the emergence of state goal orientation in organizational work groups: the role of leadership and multilevel climate perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (6): 1084. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1084
Drucker FP (2000) Gelecek İçin Yönetim 1990’lar ve Sonrası, Çev. Fikret Üçcan, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Minpa Matbaacılık Tic. Ltd. Şti, Ankara, Nisan.
Erkorkmaz Ü, Etikan İ, Demir O, Özdamar K, Sanisoğlu SY (2013) Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve uyum indeksleri. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences 33 (1): 210-223. https://doi.org/10.5336/medsci.2011-26747
Gatignon H, Xuereb JM (1997) Strategic orientation of the firm and new product performance. Journal of Marketing Research 34 (1): 77-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379703400107
Gong Y, Huang JC, Farh JL (2009) Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of Management Journal 52 (4): 765-778. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.43670890
Gupta R, Banerjee P (2016) Antecedents of organisational creativity: a multi-level approach. Business: Theory and Practice 17: 167. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2016.624
Gupta AK, Tesluk PE, Taylor MS (2007) Innovation at and across multiple levels of analysis. Organization Science 18 (6): 885-897. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1070.0337
Hamel G (2006) The why, what, and how of management innovation. Harvard Business Review 84 (2): 72.
Hamel G (2012) What matters now. Strategic Direction 28 (9). https://doi.org/10.1108/sd.2012.05628iaa.012
Hamel G, Prahalad CK (2017) Do you really have a global strategy? In International Business (pp. 285-294). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315199689-18
Han JK, Kim N, Srivastava RK (1998) Market orientation and organizational performance: is innovation a missing link? Journal of Marketing 62 (4): 30-45. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299806200403
Higgins M, Morgan J (2000) The role of creativity in planning: The “creative practitioner”. Planning Practice & Research 15 (1-2): 117-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/713691881
Hooper D, Coughlan J, Mullen M (2008) Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Articles, 2.
Hurley RF, Hult T (1998) Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: An integration and empirical examination. Journal of Marketing 62 (3): 42-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299806200303
Johan AP, Handika RF (2018) A qualitative investigation on the successful turnaround strategy from top leader perspectives: examples from Indonesia. Business: Theory and Practice 19: 114-122. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2018.12
Johnson SP, Menor LJ, Roth AV, Chase RB (2000) A critical evaluation of the new service development process. New service development: Creating memorable experiences, 1-32. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452205564.n1
Jöreskog KG, Sörbom D (1993) LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Scientific Software International, 133-158.
Jung CG (1933) Modern man in search of a soul. Translated by WS Dell and CF Baynes. Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, NY.
Jung DI, Chow C, Wu A (2003) The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: Hypotheses and some preliminary findings. The Leadership Quarterly 14 (4-5): 525-544. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00050-X
Jung T, Scott T, Davies HT, Bower P, Whalley D, McNally R, Mannion R (2009) Instruments for exploring organizational culture: A review of the literature. Public Administration Review 69 (6): 1087-1096. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02066.x
Karcıoğlu F, Kurt E (2009) Örgütsel iletişimin etkinliği açısından kurumsal bloglar ve birkaç kurumsal blogun incelenmesi. Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi 23 (3): 1-17.
Keyes CLM (1998) Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 121-140. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787065
Kindström D, Kowalkowski C (2009) Development of industrial service offerings: a process framework. Journal of Service Management 20 (2): 156-172. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230910952753
Kline RB (2015) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.
Koberg CS, Chusmir LH (1987) Organizational culture relationships with creativity and other job-related variables. Journal of Business Research 15 (5): 397-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(87)90009-9
Kotter JP (2011) On what leaders really do (on leadership). Harvard Business Review Press, 37-55.
Lai MF, Lee GG (2007) Risk-avoiding cultures toward achievement of knowledge sharing. Business Process Management Journal 13 (4): 522-537. https://doi.org/10.1108/14637150710763559
Landau S (2004) A handbook of statistical analyses using SPSS. CRC. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203009765
Lee JC, Shiue YC, Chen CY (2016) Examining the impacts of organizational culture and top management support of knowledge sharing on the success of software process improvement. Computers in Human Behavior 54: 462-474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.030
Levitt T (2002) Creativity is not enough. Harvard Business Review, 80: 138.
Li C (2010) Open leadership: How social technology can transform the way you lead (1st ed.) Press by A Wiley Imprint, USA: San Francisco.
Lisboa A, Skarmeas D, Lages C (2011) Entrepreneurial orientation, exploitative and explorative capabilities, and performance outcomes in export markets: A resource-based approach. Industrial Marketing Management 40 (8): 1274-1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2011.10.013
Lohrke FT, Bedeian AG, Palmer TB (2004) The role of top management teams in formulating and implementing turnaround strategies: a review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews 5 (2): 63-90. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-8545.2004.00097.x
Lok P, Crawford J (2004) The effect of organisational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A cross-national comparison. Journal of Management Development 23 (4): 321-338. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710410529785
Lopez‐Cabrales A, Pérez‐Luño A, Cabrera RV (2009) Knowledge as a mediator between HRM practices and innovative activity. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management 48 (4): 485-503. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20295
Lundkvist A, Yakhlef A (2004) Customer involvement in new service development: a conversational approach. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal 14 (2/3): 249-257. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520410528662
MacCallum RC, Browne MW, Sugawara HM (1996) Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological methods 1 (2): 130. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130
McDermott R, O’dell C (2001) Overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledge. Journal of Knowledge Management 5 (1): 76-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270110384428
Melton HL, Hartline MD (2010) Customer and frontline employee influence on new service development performance. Journal of Service Research 13 (4): 411-425. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670510369378
Mumford MD, Scott GM, Gaddis B, Strange JM (2002) Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships. The Leadership Quarterly 13 (6): 705-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00158-3
Muñoz-Doyague MF, González-Álvarez N, Nieto M (2008) An examination of individual factors and employees’ creativity: The case of Spain. Creativity Research Journal 20 (1): 21-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400410701841716
Nijssen EJ, Hillebrand B, Vermeulen PA, Kemp RG (2006) Exploring product and service innovation similarities and differences. International Journal of Research in Marketing 23 (3): 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2006.02.001
Nunnally J (1978) Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Olavarrieta S, Friedmann R (2008) Market orientation, knowledge-related resources and firm performance. Journal of Business Research 61 (6): 623-630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.037
Olson EM, Slater SF, Hult GTM (2005) The performance implications of fit among business strategy, marketing organization structure, and strategic behavior. Journal of Marketing 69 (3): 49-65. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.18.104.22.168362
Ordanini A, Parasuraman A (2011) Service innovation viewed through a service-dominant logic lens: a conceptual framework and empirical analysis. Journal of Service Research 14 (1): 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670510385332
Palmer M, Winters TK (1993) İnsan Kaynakları, (çev. Doğan Şahiner), Rota Yayın Yapım Tanıtım Ltd. Şti., İstanbul.
Pelham AM, Wilson DT (1995) A longitudinal study of the impact of market structure, firm structure, strategy, and market orientation culture on dimensions of small-firm performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 24 (1): 27-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/009207039602400103
Peng DX, Schroeder RG, Shah R (2008) Linking routines to operations capabilities: A new perspective. Journal of Operations Management 26 (6): 730-748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2007.11.001
Perreault WD, Cannon JP, McCarthy EJ (2013) Pazarlamanın Temelleri, Nobel Yayınları. McGraw-Hill&Irwin.
Polat M, Arabacı İB (2014) Eğitimde açık liderlik ve sosyal ağlar. Journal of World of Turks/Zeitschrift für die Welt der Türken 6 (1): 257-275.
Polat M, Arabaci İB (2015) A brief history of leadership and open leadership. Route Educational and Social Science Journal 2 (1): 207-232. https://doi.org/10.17121/ressjournal.229
Rahman SA, Taghizadeh SK, Ahmad N, Ramayah T (2016) Psychological factors of innovativeness among nomadic micro-entrepreneurs for achieving business growth. Business: Theory and Practice 17: 191. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2016.618
Rawlinson JG (1995) Yaratıcı düşünme ve beyin fırtınası [Creative thinking and brainstorming]. İstanbul, Turkey: Rota Yayınları, Bireysel Yatırım Dizisi. Reprosel Matbaa, 21.
Redmond MR, Mumford MD, Teach R (1993) Putting creativity to work: Effects of leader behavior on subordinate creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 55 (1): 120-151. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1993.1027
Reichstein T, Michelis D (2015) Open leadership (Charlene Li). In Social Media Handbuch (pp. 207-216). Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845263823-207
Reiter-Palmon R, Illies JJ (2004) Leadership and creativity: Understanding leadership from a creative problem-solving perspective. The Leadership Quarterly 15 (1): 55-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.12.005
Richter AW, Hirst G, Van Knippenberg D, Baer M (2012) Creative self-efficacy and individual creativity in team contexts: Cross-level interactions with team informational resources. Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (6): 1282. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029359
Ryff CD, Keyes CLM (1995) The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (4): 719. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1249
Ryff CD, Singer BH (2008) Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies 9 (1): 13-39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9019-0
Sarros JC, Gray J, Densten IL, Cooper B (2005) The organizational culture profile revisited and revised: An Australian perspective. Australian Journal of Management 30 (1): 159-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/031289620503000109
Schein EH (1985) Organizational culture and leadership: a dynamic view. San Francisco, CA.
Schein EM (2004) Organizational culture and leadership (3rd. ed.). Jossy-Bass.
Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H (2003) Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online 8 (2): 23-74.
Shin SJ, Kim TY, Lee JY, Bian L (2012) Cognitive team diversity and individual team member creativity: A cross-level interaction. Academy of Management Journal 55 (1): 197-212. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0270
Siguaw JA, Simpson PM, Enz CA (2006) Conceptualising innovation orientation: A framework for study and integration of innovation research. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23 (6): 556-574. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2006.00224.x
Simsek S, Akgemci T, Çelik A (1998) Davranis bilimlerine giris ve orgutlerde davranis. Ankara, Nobel Yayin Dagitim.
Sternberg RJ, Lubart TI (1999) The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. Handbook of creativity 1: 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511807916.003
Szymańska E, Dziedzic E, Rutkowski A (2017) Organisational innovations in health resort-based tourism. Business: Theory and Practice 18: 54. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2017.006
Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Tavşancıl E (2002) Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi (1 Basım). Nobel Yayıncılık, Ankara.
Thomas JR, Nelson JK, Silverman SJ (2015) Research methods in physical activity. Human kinetics, 133-153.
Tierney P, Farmer SM (2002) Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal 45 (6): 1137-1148. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069429
Tierney P, Farmer SM (2011) Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time. Journal of Applied Psychology 96 (2): 277. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020952
Tierney P, Farmer SM, Graen GB (1999) An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology 52 (3): 591-620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00173.x
Toffler A (1981) Üçüncü Dalga (Çev. Ali Seden). Altın Kitaplar yayınevi, İstanbul.
Uslu T, Bülbül IA, Çubuk D (2015) An investigation of the effects of open leadership to organizational innovativeness and corporate entrepreneurship. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 195: 1166-1175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.169
Vazquez R, Santoz ML, Alvarez LI (2001) Market orientation, innovation and competitive strategies in industrial firms. Journal of Strategic Marketing 9: 69-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652540123013
Wallach EJ (1983) Individuals and organisations: The cultural match. Training and Development Journal 37 (2): 29-36.
Wang P, Rode JC, Shi K, Luo Z, Chen W (2013) A workgroup climate perspective on the relationships among transformational leadership, workgroup diversity, and employee creativity. Group & Organization Management 38 (3): 334-360. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601113488163
Wendra W, Sule ET, Joeliaty J, Azis Y (2019) Exloring dynamic capabilities, intellectual capital and innovation performance relationship: evidence from the garment manufacturing. Business: Theory and Practice 20: 123. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2019.12
West MA (2002) Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Applied Psychology 51 (3): 355-387. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00951
Wheaton B, Muthen B, Alwin DF, Summers G (1977) Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. Sociological Methodology 8 (1): 84-136. https://doi.org/10.2307/270754
Williams F, Foti RJ (2011) Formally developing creative leadership as a driver of organizational innovation. Advances in Developing Human Resources 13 (3): 279-296. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311424702
Woodman RW, Sawyer JE, Griffin RW (1993) Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review 18 (2): 293-321. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1993.3997517
Yang Y, Lee PK, Cheng TCE (2016) Continuous improvement competence, employee creativity, and new service development performance: A frontline employee perspective. International Journal of Production Economics 171: 275-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2015.08.006
Yiing LH, Ahmad KZB (2009) The moderating effects of organizational culture on the relationships between leadership behaviour and organizational commitment and between organizational commitment and job satisfaction and performance. Leadership and Organization Development Journal 30 (1): 53-86. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730910927106
Zhou KZ, Yim CK, Tse DK (2005) The effects of strategic orientations on technology-and market-based breakthrough innovations. Journal of Marketing 69 (2): 42-60. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.126.96.36.199756