Share:


Gamification in for-profit organisations: a mapping study

    László Szendrői   Affiliation
    ; Krishna S. Dhir   Affiliation
    ; Katalin Czakó   Affiliation

Abstract

This study reviews prevailing trends in “for-profit” business-related gamification. It examines the current literature, focusing on gamification elements, industries and variables that is of interest to researchers in different business environments. A systematic mapping approach was applied to this study. Articles were selected from different databases in a two-step screening process, subject to sets of inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 25 articles were further for: (1) represented industries, (2) orientation of the gamified system, (3) types of implementation, (4) gamification elements analysed, (5) impact on companies, and (6) company variables analysed. Results confirmed that the number of empirical studies on gamification in for-profit organisations is growing. Researchers have placed greater emphasis on analysing customer-related gamification environments than on employee-oriented gamification. This finding is consistent with the prevailing trend of increasing demand from practitioners to gamify customer-related processes. This is likely due to the potential for higher positive impact on the performance of companies. Most frequently deployed gamification elements are badges, rewards, and leader boards. The literature suggests that over all, gamification has a positive effect on various company variables, such as motivation, engagement of employees, brand loyalty, and customer experience. This paper highlights the particular areas of business-related gamification that have already been examined and possible future directions.

Keyword : gamification, organisations, customer environment, engagement, motivation, mapping study, badges, levels, points

How to Cite
Szendrői, L., Dhir, K. S. ., & Czakó, K. (2020). Gamification in for-profit organisations: a mapping study. Business: Theory and Practice, 21(2), 598-612. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2020.11864
Published in Issue
Sep 18, 2020
Abstract Views
93
PDF Downloads
90
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Adukaite, A., van Zyl, I., Er, Ş., & Cantoni, L. (2017). Teacher perceptions on the use of digital gamified learning in tourism education: The case of South African secondary schools. Computers & Education, 111, 172–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.04.008

Alcivar, I., & Abad, A. G. (2016). Design and evaluation of a gamified system for ERP training. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 109–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.018

Bailey, P., Pritchard, G., & Kernohan, H. (2015). Gamification in market research: Increasing enjoyment, participant engagement and richness of data, but what of data validity? International Journal of Market Research, 57(1), 17. https://doi.org/10.2501/IJMR-2015-003

Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., & Gonçalves, D. (2015). Gamification for smarter learning: tales from the trenches. Smart Learning Environments, 2(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-015-0017-8

Baxter, R. J., Holderness Jr., D. K., & Wood, D. A. (2016). Applying basic gamification techniques to IT compliance training: evidence from the lab and field. Journal of Information Systems, 30(3), 119–133. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Baxter, R. J., Holderness, D. K., & Wood, D. A. (2017). The effects of gamification on corporate compliance training: a partial replication and field study of true office anti-corruption training programs. Journal of Forensic Accounting Research, 2(1), A20–A30. https://doi.org/10.2308/jfar-51725

Bharathi, A. K. B. G., Singh, A., Tucker, C. S., & Nembhard, H. B. (2016). Knowledge discovery of game design features by mining user-generated feedback. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 361–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.076

Boyle, S. C., Earle, A. M., LaBrie, J. W., & Smith, D. J. (2017). PNF 2.0? Initial evidence that gamification can increase the efficacy of brief, web-based personalized normative feedback alcohol interventions. Addictive Behaviors, 67, 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.11.024

Buckley, P., & Doyle, E. (2017). Individualising gamification: An investigation of the impact of learning styles and personality traits on the efficacy of gamification using a prediction market. Computers and Education, 106, 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.11.009

Bunchball, I. (2010). Gamification 101: An introduction to the use of game dynamics to influence behavior. White Paper, 9.

Businesswire. (n.d.). Global Gamification Market to Exceed USD 6 Billion by 2019, According to Technavio. Business Wire. http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160308005109/en/Global-Gamification-Market-Exceed-USD-6-Billion-FirefoxHTML/Shell/Open/Command

Chou, Y. K. (2015). Actionable gamification: Beyond points, badges, and leaderboards. Octalysis Group.

Conaway, R., & Garay, M. C. (2014). Gamification and service marketing. SpringerPlus, 3(1), 653. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-653

Costa, C. J., Aparicio, M., Aparicio, S., & Aparicio, J. T. (2017, August). Gamification usage ecology. In Proceedings of the 35th ACM International Conference on the Design of Communication (p. 2). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3121113.3121205

Dale, S. (2014). Gamification: Making work fun, or making fun of work? Business Information Review, 31(2), 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266382114538350

de Sousa Borges, S., Durelli, V. H., Reis, H. M., & Isotani, S. (2014, March). A systematic mapping on gamification applied to education. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (pp. 216–222). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2554850.2554956

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011, September). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”. In Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments (pp. 9–15). New York, United States. https://doi.org/10.1145/2181037.2181040

Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., & Angelova, G. (2015). Gamification in education: A systematic mapping study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3).

Dissanayake, I., Mehta, N., Palvia, P., Taras, V., & Amoako-Gyampah, K. (2019). Competition matters! Self-efficacy, effort, and performance in crowdsourcing teams. Information & Management, 56(8), 103158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2019.04.001

Eisingerich, A. B., Marchand, A., Fritze, M. P., & Dong, L. (2019). Hook vs. hope: How to enhance customer engagement through gamification. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 36(2), 200–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2019.02.003

Ērgle, D. (2016). AirBaltic case based analysis of potential for improving employee engagement levels in Latvia through Gamification. Economics and Business, 28(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1515/eb-2016-0007

Eynard, B., Oliveri, S. M., & Peris-Fajarnes, G. (2017, September). Advances on mechanics, design engineering and manufacturing. Procedings of the International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering & Advanced Manufacturing (JCM) (pp. 14–16). Catania, Italy. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45781-9

Fekete, D. (2018). Development and economic governance through the example of the city of Győr. DETUROPE: Central European Journal of Tourism and Regional Development, 10(1), 97–115.

Feng, Y., et al. (2018). Gamification artifacts and crowdsourcing participation: Examining the mediating role of intrinsic motivations. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 124–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.018

Fernandes, J., Duarte, D., Ribeiro, C., Farinha, C., Pereira, J. M., & da Silva, M. M. (2012). iThink: A game-based approach towards improving collaboration and participation in requirement elicitation. Procedia Computer Science, 15, 66–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.059

Fisher, D. J., Beedle, J., & Rouse, S. E. (2014). Gamification: a study of business teacher educators’ knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with the gamification of activities in the classroom. Journal for Research in Business Education, 56(1), 1–16. https://reddog.rmu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=115099505&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Fitz-Walter, Z., Johnson, D., Wyeth, P., Tjondronegoro, D., & Scott-Parker, B. (2017). Driven to drive? Investigating the effect of gamification on learner driver behavior, perceived motivation and user experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 586–595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.050

García, F., Pedreira, O., Piattini, M., Cerdeira-Pena, A., & Penabad, M. (2017). A framework for gamification in software engineering. Journal of Systems and Software, 132, 21–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2017.06.021

Gartner Study. (2012). Gamification 2020: What Is the Future of Gamification? https://www.gartner.com/doc/2226015/gamification--future-gamification

Hamari, J. (2013). Transforming homo economicus into homo ludens: A field experiment on gamification in a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 236–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2013.01.004

Hamari, J. (2017). Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 469–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.036

Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does gamification work? A literature review of empirical studies on gamification. In 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 3025–3034). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2014.377

Herzig, P., Ameling, M., & Schill, A. (2012). A generic platform for enterprise gamification. In 2012 Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture and European Conference on Software Architecture (pp. 219–223). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/WICSA-ECSA.212.33

Högberg, J., et al. (2019a). Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50(November 2018), 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.05.006

Högberg, J., Shams, P., & Wästlund, E. (2019b). Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50(July 2018), 298–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.004

Hsu, C. L., Chen, Y. C., Yang, T. N., & Lin, W. K. (2017). Do website features matter in an online gamification context? Focusing on the mediating roles of user experience and attitude. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), 196–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2017.01.009

Hsu, C. L., & Chen, M. C. (2018a). How does gamification improve user experience? An empirical investigation on the antecedences and consequences of user experience and its mediating role. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 132(November 2017), 118–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.01.023

Hsu, C. L., & Chen, M. C. (2018b). How gamification marketing activities motivate desirable consumer behaviors: Focusing on the role of brand love. Computers in Human Behavior, 88(May), 121–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.037

Huang, C. K., Chen, C. Der, & Liu, Y. T. (2019). To stay or not to stay? Discontinuance intention of gamification apps. Information Technology and People, 32(6), 1423–1445. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-08-2017-0271

Huber, M. Z., & Hilty, L. M. (2015). ICT innovations for sustainability. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 310, 367–385. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09228-7

Jang, S., Kitchen, P. J., & Kim, J. (2018). The effects of gamified customer benefits and characteristics on behavioral engagement and purchase: Evidence from mobile exercise application uses. Journal of Business Research, 92(July), 250–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.07.056

Jiménez, S., & Escribano, F. (2015). Gamification model canvas. https://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/SergioJimenez/20131106/204134/Gamification_Model_Canvas.php

Kampker, A., Deutskens, C., Deutschmann, K., Maue, A., & Haunreiter, A. (2014). Increasing ramp-up performance by implementing the gamification approach. Procedia CIRP, 20, 74–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.05.034

Kappen, D. L., & Nacke, L. E. (2013). The kaleidoscope of effective gamification: deconstructing gamification in business applications In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications (pp. 119–122). Toronto, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1145/2583008.2583029

Kim, K., & Ahn, S. J. (Grace). (2017). The role of gamification in enhancing intrinsic motivation to use a loyalty program. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 40, 41–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2017.07.001

Kim, S. (2015). Interdisciplinary approaches and methods for sustainable transformation and innovation. Sustainability (Switzerland), 7(4), 3977–3983. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7043977

Kitchenham, B. A., Budgen, D., & Pearl Brereton, O. (2011). Using mapping studies as the basis for further research – A participant-observer case study. Information and Software Technology, 53(6), 638–651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2010.12.011

Köse, D. B., Morschheuser, B., & Hamari, J. (2019). Is it a tool or a toy? How user conceptions of a system’s purpose affect their experience and use. International Journal of Information Management, 49(July), 461–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.07.016

Kuramoto, I., Ishibashi, T., Yamamoto, K., & Tsujino, Y. (2013). Stand up, heroes!: Gamification for standing people on crowded public transportation. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 8013 LNCS(PART 2), 538–547. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39241-2_59

Landers, R. N., Bauer, K. N., & Callan, R. C. (2017). Gamification of task performance with leaderboards: A goal setting experiment. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 508–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.008

Leclercq, T., Hammedi, W., & Poncin, I. (2018). The boundaries of gamification for engaging customers: effects of losing a contest in online co-creation communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 44, 82–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2018.04.004

Lexico. (n.d.). Gamification – definition of gamification in English. Oxford Dictionaries. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/gamification

Leszczyński, K., & Zakrzewicz, M. (2019). Reviews with revenue in reputation: Credibility management method for consumer-opinion platforms. Information Systems, 84, 189–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.is.2019.05.005

Li, C.-Y. (2017). Consumer behavior in switching between membership cards and mobile applications: the case of starbucks. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.042

Liang, S., Schuckert, M., Law, R., & Chen, C. C. (2017). Be a “Superhost”: The importance of badge systems for peer-to-peer rental accommodations. Tourism Management, 60, 454–465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.01.007

Lopez, C. E., & Tucker, C. S. (2017). A quantitative method for evaluating the complexity of implementing and performing game features in physically-interactive gamified applications’. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 42–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.036

Lounis, S., Neratzouli, X., & Pramatari, K. (2013). Can gamification increase consumer engagement? A qualitative approach on a green case. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 399, 200–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-37437-1_17

Lucassen, G., & Jansen, S. (2014). Gamification in consumer marketing – future or fallacy? Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148(2011), 194–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.034

Martí-Parreño, J., Seguí-Mas, D., & Seguí-Mas, E. (2016). Teachers’ attitude towards and actual use of gamification. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 682–688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.104

Mora, A., Riera, D., González, C., & Arnedo-Moreno, J. (2017). Gamification: a systematic review of design frameworks. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29(3), 516–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-017-9150-4

Morford, Z. H., Witts, B. N., Killingsworth, K. J., & Alavosius, M. P. (2014). Gamification: The intersection between behavior analysis and game design technologies. Behavior Analyst, 37(1), 25–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-014-0006-1

Moro, S., Ramos, P., Esmerado, J., Jalali, S. M. J. (2019). Can we trace back hotel online reviews’ characteristics using gamification features? International Journal of Information Management, 44, 88–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.09.015

Narayanan, D., Gertner-Samet, A., Malter Cohen, M., & Polli, F. (2016). Gamification of the hiring process. Workforce Solutions Review, 32–34.

Nour, M. M., Rouf, A. S., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2018). Exploring young adult perspectives on the use of gamification and social media in a smartphone platform for improving vegetable intake. Appetite, 120, 547–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.016

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2003, September). Modeling value propositions in e-Business. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Electronic commerce (pp. 429–436). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/948005.948061

Park, J., Liu, D., Mun, Y. Y., & Santhanam, R. (2019). GAMESIT: A gamified system for information technology training. Computers & Education, 142, 103643. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103643

Pedreira, O., García, F., Brisaboa, N., & Piattini, M. (2015). Gamification in software engineering – A systematic mapping. Information and Software Technology, 57, 157–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2014.08.007

Perryer, C., Celestine, N. A., Scott-Ladd, B., & Leighton, C. (2016). Enhancing workplace motivation through gamification: Transferrable lessons from pedagogy. The International Journal of Management Education, 14(3), 327–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2016.07.001

Petersen, K., Feldt, R., Mujtaba, S., & Mattsson, M. (2008). Systematic mapping studies in software engineering. 12th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, 17, 10. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218194007003112

Poncin, I., Garnier, M., Mimoun, M. S. B., & Leclercq, T. (2017). Smart technologies and shopping experience: Are gamification interfaces effective? The case of the Smartstore. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, 320–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.01.025

Rauch, M. (2013). Best practices for using enterprise gamification to engage employees and customers. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 276–283). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39262-7_31

Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J. H., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2016). Game on: engaging customers and employees through gamification. Business Horizons, 59(1), 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2015.08.002

Rodrigues, L. F., Costa, C. J., & Oliveira, A. (2016a). Gamification: A framework for designing software in e-banking. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 620–634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.04.035

Rodrigues, L. F., Oliveira, A., & Costa, C. J. (2016b). Playing seriously – How gamification and social cues influence bank customers to use gamified e-business applications. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 392–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.063

Rodrigues, L. F., Oliveira, A., & Costa, C. J. (2016c). Does ease-of-use contributes to the perception of enjoyment? A case of gamification in e-banking. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 114–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.015

Roth, S., Schneckenberg, D., & Tsai, C. W. (2015). The ludic drive as innovation driver: Introduction to the gamification of innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 24(2), 300–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12124

Routledge, H. (2016). Why games are good for business: how to leverage the power of serious games, gamification and simulations. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137448989

Sigala, M. (2015). The application and impact of gamification funware on trip planning and experiences: the case of TripAdvisor’s funware’. Electronic Markets, 25(3), 189–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-014-0179-1

Sillaots, M. (2014). Gamification of higher education by the example of course of research methods. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (Vol. 8613 LNCS). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09635-3_11

Sox, C. B., Kline, S. F., & Crews, T. B. (2014). Identifying best practices, opportunities and barriers in meeting planning for Generation Y. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 244–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.09.009

Stanculescu, L. C., Bozzon, A., Sips, R. J., & Houben, G. J. (2016). Work and play: An experiment in enterprise gamification. Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 346–358). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2818048.2820061

Suh, A., Cheung, C. M., Ahuja, M., & Wagner, C. (2017). Gamification in the workplace: The central role of the aesthetic experience. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(1), 268–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2017.1297642

Terrill, B. (2008). My coverage of lobby [sic] of the social gaming summit. http://www.bretterrill.com/2008/06/my-coverage-of-lobby-of- social-gaming.html

Werbach, K., & Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win: How game thinking can revolutionize your business. Wharton Digital Press.

Xi, N., & Hamari, J. (2019). Does gamification satisfy needs? A study on the relationship between gamification features and intrinsic need satisfaction. International Journal of Information Management, 46(November 2018), 210–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.12.002

Xi, W., Gong, H., & Wang, Q. (2019). How hand gestures influence the enjoyment in gamified mobile marketing. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 127(September 2017), 169–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2018.09.010

Yang, Y., Asaad, Y., & Dwivedi, Y. (2017). Examining the impact of gamification on intention of engagement and brand attitude in the marketing context. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 459–469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.066

Yildirim, I. (2017). The effects of gamification-based teaching practices on student achievement and students’ attitudes toward lessons. The Internet and Higher Education, 33, 86–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.02.002