Y–Z in the labour market: employee perceptions in different cultures (Hungary–Pakistan)

    Andrea Bencsik   Affiliation
    ; Ali Shujahat   Affiliation
    ; Tímea Juhász Affiliation


Research on generations examine and analyse the similarities and differences between various age groups, and their opportunities for cooperation in the labour market, from various perspectives. According to the research, the behaviour and preparedness of each generation are different, the coordination and proper management of which poses challenges for all organisations. This is especially true when staff from national cultures with very distant values work together. The recognition of this problem was the pretext to the present research. The aim of the research is to examine the perception of the under 30 age group socialised and employed in two largely different cultures (Hungarian–Pakistani). Contrary to our assumption, the results of the quantitative research based on an online questionnaire confirm that the respondents do not perceive differently the behaviour, attitudes, expectations regarding work, workplace and employers of Pakistani and Hungarian young people at work. Employers’ perceptions of this age group play a significant role in choosing the tools that affect their retention in the workplace. In this respect, the employees of the studied cultures find similar solutions expedient.

Keyword : employers’ perceptions, generations, national culture

How to Cite
Bencsik, A., Shujahat, A., & Juhász, T. (2021). Y–Z in the labour market: employee perceptions in different cultures (Hungary–Pakistan). Business: Theory and Practice, 22(2), 453-461.
Published in Issue
Nov 29, 2021
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Aggarwal, A., Sadhna, P., Gupta, S., Mittal, A., & Rastogi, S. (2020). Gen Z entering the workforce: Restructuring HR policies and practices for fostering the task performance and organizational commitment. Journal of Public Affairs, 2020(e2535), 1–18.

Bencsik, A., Horvath-Csikos, G., & Juhasz, T. (2016). Y and Z generations at workplaces. Journal of Competitiveness, 8(3), 90–106.

Carlson, E. (2009). 20th-Century U.S. generations. Population Reference Bureau, 64(1), 2–16.

Chillakuri, B. (2020). Understanding Generation Z expectations for effective onboarding. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 33(7), 1277–1296.

Cotet, G. B., Carutasu, N. L., & Chiscop, F. (2020). Industry 4.0 diagnosis from an imillennial educational perspective. Education Sciences, 10(1), 21.

Czegledi, Cs., & Juhasz, T. (2015). Mit varunk el a palyakezdőktől? Velemenyek es szempontok a cegek oldalarol. Studia Mundi – Economica, 2(3), 54–63.

Gnanakumar, B. (2019). Reinforcement of brands of faith with the paradox of cultural divergence in Indian perspective. European Business Review, 32(3), 513–530.

Groupama Biztosito. (2019). Boldogabb, aki bįtrabban él?

Gursoy, D., Geng-Qing Chi, Ch., & Karadag, C. G. (2013). Generational differences in work values and attitudes among frontline and service contact employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(1), 40–48.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. McGraw-Hill.

Howe, N., Strauss, W., & Matson, R. J. (2000). Millennials rising: The Next Great generation. Vintage Books.

Jayathilake, H. D., Daud, D., Eaw, H. C., & Annuar, N. (2021). Employee development and retention of Generation-Z employees in the post-COVID-19 workplace: a conceptual framework. Benchmarking: an International Journal, 28(7).

Kashif, M., & Rehman, M. A. (2014). Expected service quality of utility stores in Pakistan. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 6(4), 309–325.

Klopotan, I., Aleksic, A., & Vinkovic, N. (2020). Do business ethics and ethical decision making still matter: Perspective of different generational cohorts. Business Systems Research Journal, 11(1), 31–43.

Kupperschmidt, B. R. (2000). Multigeneration employees: strategies for effective management. The Health Care Manager, 19(1), 65–76.

Lissitsa, S., & Laor, T. (2021). Baby boomers, generation X and generation Y: Identifying generational differences in effects of personality traits in on-demand radio use. Technology in Society, 64, 101526.

Magano, J., Silva, C. S., Figueiredo, C., Vitoria, A., & Nogueira, T. (2021). Project management in engineering education: Providing generation Z with transferable skills. Ieee Revista Iberoamericana De Tecnologias Del Aprendizaje, 16(1), 45–57.

Mannheim, K. (1928). Das Problem der Generationen. Kölner Vierteljahreshefte für Soziologie, 7, 157–185, 309–330.

Omuris, E., Erdem, F., & Aytemur, J. O. (2020). The relationship between cooperative and competitive behavioral tendencies and trust in coworkers. Evidence-based HRM, 8(3), 345–360.

Rahman, S., & Azhar, S. (2011). Xpressions of generation Y: perceptions of the mobile phone service industry in Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 23(1), 91–107.

Reissova, A., Simsova, J., & Frickova, K. (2019). Influence of employee engagement and employee benefit schemes on job satisfaction. Ad Alta – Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 9(2), 288–292.

Rodriguez, M., Boyer, S., Fleming, D., & Cohen, S. (2019). Managing the next generation of sales, Gen Z/Millennial Cusp: An exploration of grit, entrepreneurship, and loyalty. Journal of Business-To-Business Marketing, 26(1), 43–55.

Safrankova, J. M., & Sikyr, M. (2017). Work expectations and potential employability of millennials and post-millennials on the Czech labor market. Oeconomia Copernicana, 8(4), 595–609.

Serrano, K. M., Mendes, G. H. S., Lizarelli, F. L., & Ganga, G. M. D. (2021). Assessing the telemedicine acceptance for adults in Brazil. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 34(1), 35–51.

Smola, K. W., & Sutton, C. D. (2002). Generational differences: revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 3(4), 363–382.

Snieska, V., Navickas, V., Grencikova, A., Safrankova, J. M., & Sikyr, M. (2020). Fundamental human resource management practices aimed at dealing with new challenges in the labour market. Transformations in Business & Economics, 19(2), 38–51.

Survey system. (2021).

Tang, F. (2019). A critical review of research on the work-related attitudes of Generation Z in China. Social Psychology and Society, 10(2), 19–28.

Tapscott, D. (2009). Grown up digital: How the net generation is changing the world. McGraw Hill.

The Center for Generationals Kinetics. (2020). Generational breakdown: Info about all of the Generations.

Twenge, J. M., Stacy M. C., Hoffman, B. J., & Lance, C. E. (2010). Generational differences in work values: Leisure and extrinsic values increasing, social and intrinsic values decreasing. Journal of Management, 36(5), 1117–1142.

Twenge, J. M., & Kasser, T. (2013). Generational changes in materialism and work centrality. 1976−2007: associations with temporal changes in societal insecurity and materialistic role modeling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(7), 883–897.

Wasilczuk, J. E., & Richert-Kazmierska, A. (2020). What potential entrepreneurs from generation Y and Z lack – IEO and the role of EE. Education Sciences, 10(11), 331.