Guidelines for Authors

Use these instructions if you are preparing a manuscript to submit to Business: Theory and Practice.

Business: Theory and Practice considers all manuscripts on the strict condition that:

  • the manuscript is your own original work, and does not duplicate any other previously published work, including your own previously published work;
  • the manuscript has been submitted only to Business: Theory and Practice;
  • it is not under consideration or peer review or accepted for publication or in press or published elsewhere;
  • the manuscript contains nothing that is abusive, defamatory, libellous, obscene, fraudulent, or illegal.

Please note that Business: Theory and Practice uses CrossCheck™ software to screen manuscripts for unoriginal material. By submitting your manuscript to Business: Theory and Practice you are agreeing to any necessary originality checks your manuscript may have to undergo during the peer-review and production processes.

 Submission checklist


1. Read the Aims & Scope to gain an overview and assess if your manuscript is suitable for this journal;

2. Use the Word template for Title Page and Word template for Anonymized Document to prepare your manuscript;

3. Make sure that issues about publication ethics, copyright, authorship, figure formats, data and references format have been appropriately considered; and

4. Ensure that all authors have approved the content of the submitted manuscript.

 Manuscript preparation

  • Topic and content of the manuscript must fit the aims and scope of Business: Theory and Practice.
  • Manuscripts are accepted only in English. British English spelling and punctuation is preferred. The language will be evaluated by our editors to decide if it is of sufficient quality. It is strongly recommended to have your manuscript checked by a native speaker or an English language specialist before submission, in order to ensure that the language is acceptable.
  • Business: Theory and Practice has a strong preference for articles to be no more than 6–8000 words. In exceptional circumstances, however, the Editor handling the manuscript may be willing to agree some latitude here with the author. Inclusive of tables, references, figure captions, footnotes, endnotes, appendices, etc. Manuscripts that greatly exceed this will be critically reviewed with respect to length.
  • The structure of the manuscript should be organised as follows: title, author(s), affiliation(s), abstract, keywords, introduction, body text (the main text should include previous research on the subject, methodology and/or theoretical framework, results of the research, and discussion and interpretation of results obtained), acknowledgements (can be added if necessary), disclosure statement, references.
  • The title of the manuscript should not exceed 15 words.
  • Abstracts of 150 to 250 words are required for all manuscripts submitted.
  • Each manuscript should have 6 to 10 keywords.
  • Section headings should be concise and numbered sequentially, using a decimal system for subsections. Please note that Introduction, Conclusions and References should not be numbered.
  • All authors of a manuscript should include their full names, affiliations (department, faculty, university, etc.). One author should be identified as the corresponding author. Please give the affiliation where the research was conducted. If any of the named co-authors moves affiliation during the peer review process, the new affiliation can be given as a footnote. Please note that no changes to affiliation can be made after the manuscript is accepted. Please note that the email address of the corresponding author will normally be displayed in the article PDF and the online article.
  • All persons who have a reasonable claim to authorship must be named in the manuscript as co-authors; the corresponding author must be authorized by all co-authors to act as an agent on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication of the manuscript, and the order of names should be agreed by all authors.
  • People who contributed to the work should be listed in the Acknowledgments, along with their contributions. You must ensure that anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being named.
  • Please supply all details required by any funding and grant-awarding bodies as Funding in a separate paragraph as follows:
    • For single agency grantsThis work was supported by the <Funding Agency> under Grant [number xxxx].
    • For multiple agency grantsThis work was supported by the <Funding Agency #1> under Grant [number xxxx]; <Funding Agency #2> under Grant [number xxxx]; and <Funding Agency #3> under Grant [number xxxx].
  • Authors must also incorporate a Disclosure statement which will acknowledge any financial, professional, personal interest or benefit they have arising from the direct applications of their research.
  • Acknowledgements, Funding, Disclosure statement, and Contribution should be provided in a separate file in order to ensure author anonymity. The information will be included in the manuscript after peer-review process.
  • For all manuscripts non-discriminatory language is mandatory. Sexist or racist terms must not be used.
  • Authors must adhere to SI units. Units are not italicised.
  • When using a word which is or is asserted to be a proprietary term or trade mark, authors must use the symbol ® or TM.

 Figures and tables

  • Please be sure that all imported tables and figures are at the appropriate resolution: 1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour.
  • If the size of the final file is too large (more than 10 MB), then the manuscript should contain the figures with minimised resolution, and the original figures must be provided in separate files (formats are indicated below).
  • Figures and tables should follow the requirements: Tables: font – Times New Roman 9 pt, line thickness – 0.5 pt, file formats – *.doc, *.docx. Photos and images: resolution – no less than 300 dpi, file formats – *.jpg, *.tiff, *.gif, *.png, *.jpeg, *.bmp, *.svg.
  • Diagrams, charts and schemes: font – Times New Roman from 5 to 8 pt, line thickness – from 0.3 to 2 pt, file formats – *.pdf, *.eps, *.cdr, *.xls, *.xlsx, *.dwg. The width of figures and tables should be either 8 cm, or 14–16.5 cm.
  • All figures and tables must be placed and cited in the text in consecutive numerical order. They must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (e.g. Fig. 1, Fig. 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. Fig. 1a, Fig. 1b).
  • The file name for a graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure1, Figure2a, Table1, etc. Tables (refer with: Table 1, Table 2, etc.) should be presented as part of the text and should be editable.

 Reference style

Business: Theory and Practice uses the journal-specific style short reference system for citations in the text with a detailed alphabetical list at the end of the paper.

Citations within the text

Before submitting the manuscript, please check each citation in the text against the References and vice-versa to ensure that they match exactly. Citations in the text should be formatted as follows: Smith (1990) or (Smith 1990), Smith et al. (1998) or (Smith et al. 1998) and (Smith et al. 1998, 2000, Brock and Gunderson 2001, Felt 2006).


It is important to format the references properly because all references will be linked electronically as completely as possible to the papers cited. It is desirable to add a DOI (digital object identifier) number for either the full-text or title and abstract of the article as an addition to traditional volume and page numbers. If a DOI is lacking, it is recommended to add a link to any online source of an article.

Published Papers

Lanine G, Vennet RV (2005) Failure prediction in the Russian bank sector with logit and trait recognition models: Working paper. Ghent University, Belgium.

Accepted Papers

Same as above, but "in press" appears instead the year in parentheses.

Electronic Journal Articles

Goddard JA, Molyneux PM, Wilson JOS (2004) Dynamics of growth and profitability in banking. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 36 (6): 1069–1090.

Paper within conference proceedings

Donohue P, Power N (2014) Linking career anchors and social cognitive frameworks: developing an interview instrument. In: SIGSIM-CPR '14 Proceedings of the 52nd ACM conference on Computers and people research, Singapore, 29–31 May 2014.

Book chapters

Hedge SP, Miller RE (1996) The informational role of debt and the pricing of initial public offerings. In: Levis M (Ed) Empirical issues in raising equity capital. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 151–174.


Gujarati DN (2003) Basic econometrics. 4th ed. New York: McGrawHill.

Book with an institutional author

International Labour Organization (ILO) (2016) Labour overview of Latin America and the CaribbeanILO, Lima.

PhD thesis

Gumanti TA (2000) Accounting information and the underpricing of Indonesian initial public offerings. PhD’s Thesis, Australia: Edith Cowan University.


ASEAN (2008) ASEAN Economic community blueprint

All journal titles should be spelt out completely and should NOT be italicized.

Provide the publisher’s name and location when you cite symposia or conference proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication date if both are given. Do not list abstracts or unpublished material in the References. They should be quoted in the text as personal observations, personal communications, or unpublished data, specifying the exact source, with a date if possible. When possible, include URLs for articles available online through library subscription or individual journal subscription, or through large international archives, indexes and aggregators, e.g., PubMedCentral, Scopus, CAB Abstracts, etc. URLs for pdf articles that are posted on personal websites only should be avoided.