Share:


Creativity among business and tourism management university students: determining sociodemographic factors

    Mercedes Mareque Affiliation
    ; Elena De Prada Affiliation
    ; Margarita Pino-Juste Affiliation

Abstract

There is a clear link between creativity levels, entrepreneurship and employability that implies the need for higher education students to acquire creative skills and abilities. For this reason, this study aims to analyse creativity levels among university students and verify whether certain sociodemographic factors have an impact on creativity. Two approaches were applied to measure creativity; on one hand, divergent thinking measured through three tasks, originality, fluency and flexibility, and creative potential (ideation – Runco Ideational Behavior Scale) on the other. A survey was administered to 303 Business and Tourism Management degree students during the academic year 2016–2017. The results reveal that our students’ creative potential (Runco Ideational Behavior Scale) is relatively high, while the divergent thinking measurements (originality, fluency and flexibility) obtained lower scores. There are gender-based differences in the three divergent thinking constructs, with men gaining higher scores; likewise, differences also appeared in the constructs of fluency and originality depending on the degree being studied, with Business degree students displaying a higher average score. In addition, students living with their families scored higher on flexibility than those that did not. Moreover, students’ creative potential (Runco Ideational Behavior Scale) is greater among those who both study and work. These results emphasize the need to encourage the development of creativity among Spanish university students.


Santrauka


Vyrauja aiški sąsaja tarp kūrybiškumo lygių, antreprenerystės ir įsidarbinimo galimybių, o tai reiškia, kad studentams, siekiantiems aukštojo išsilavinimo, reikia įgyti kūrybinių įgūdžių ir gebėjimų. Dėl šios priežasties šiame tyrime siekiama išanalizuoti kūrybiškumo lygius tarp universiteto studentų ir patikrinti, ar tam tikri sociodemografiniai veiksniai turi įtakos kūrybiškumui. Vertinant kūrybiškumą buvo taikomi du būdai: viena vertus, divergentinis mąstymas buvo matuojamas pasitelkiant tris užduotis, o originalumas, sklandumas ir lankstumas bei kūrybinis potencialas (idėjizavimas – Runco idėjizuojančio elgesio skalė) – pasinaudojant kitais metodais. 2016–2017 mokslo metais buvo apklausti 303 verslo ir turizmo vadybos specializacijos studentai. Rezultatai parodė, kad mūsų studentų kūrybinis potencialas (Runco idėjizuojančio elgesio skalė) yra gana aukštas, tuo tarpu divergentinio mąstymo galimybės (originalumas, sklandumas ir lankstumas) buvo kur kas prastesnės. Tris divergentinio mąstymo konstruktų skirtumus lemia lytimi grindžiami skirtumai – vyriškos lyties asmenys gavo aukštesnius įvertinimus; panaši situacija susiklostė sklandumo ir originalumo konstruktų atvejais – išryškėjo priklausomybė nuo studijuojamos specializacijos: verslo specializacijos studentai pademonstravo aukštesnius vidutinius rezultatus. Be to, tie studentai, kurie gyvena savo šeimose, gavo aukštesnius įvertinimus lankstumo atžvilgiu nei tie, kurie gyvena atskirai nuo jų. Taipogi studentų kūrybinis potencialas (Runco idėjizuojančio elgesio skalė) yra kur kas didesnis tarp tų, kurie ir studijuoja, ir dirba. Šiais rezultatais pabrėžiama būtinybė skatinti Ispanijos studentų kūrybiškumą.


Reikšminiai žodžiai: kūrybiškumas, kūrybinis potencialas, divergentinis mąstymas, sociodemografiniai veiksniai, verslo administravimo ir vadybos studentai, turizmo vadybos studentai.

Keyword : creativity, creative potential, divergent thinking, sociodemographic factors, Business Administration and Management students, Tourism Management students

How to Cite
Mareque, M., De Prada, E., & Pino-Juste, M. (2019). Creativity among business and tourism management university students: determining sociodemographic factors. Creativity Studies, 12(2), 258-279. https://doi.org/10.3846/cs.2019.6925
Published in Issue
Sep 30, 2019
Abstract Views
131
PDF Downloads
85
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Abra, J. C., & Valentine-French, S. (1991). Gender differences in creative achievement: a survey of explanations. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 117(3), 233-284.

Ahmetoglu, G., Harding, X., Akhtar, R., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2015). Predictors of creative achievement: assessing the impact of entrepreneurial potential, perfectionism, and employee engagement. Creativity Research Journal, 27(2), 198-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2015.1030293

Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: a componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357-376. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.2.357

Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. (2010). Business schools on an innovation mission. Report of the AACSB International: task force on business schools and innovation. Retrieved from https://www.aacsb.edu/~/media/AACSB/Publications/research-reports/business-schools-on-an-innovation-mission.ashx

Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2008). Gender differences in creativity. Journal of Creativity Behavior, 42(2), 75-105. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01289.x

Bagheri, A., & Lope Pihie, Z. A. (2010). Role of family and entrepreneurial leadership development of university students. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11(4), 434-442.

Beketayev, K., & Runco, M. A. (2016). Scoring divergent thinking tests by computer with a semantics-based algorithm. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 210-220. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v12i2.1127

Biraglia, A., & Kadile, V. (2017). The role of entrepreneurial passion and creativity in developing entrepreneurial intentions: insights from American homebrewers. Journal of Small Business Management, 55(1), 170-188. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12242

Broadbridge, A., & Swanson, V. (2005). Earning and learning: how term-time employment impacts on students’ adjustment to university life. Journal of Education and Work, 18(2), 235-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080500086008

Burkšaitienė, N. (2018). How can university learning environment contribute to students’ creativity? Lithuanian students’ perspective. Creativity Studies, 11(1), 162-171. https://doi.org/10.3846/cs.2018.271

Camacho-Miñano, M.-del-M., & Campo, del C. (2017). The role of creativity in entrepreneurship: an empirical study on business undergraduates. Education + Training, 59(7/8), 672-688. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-08-2016-0132

Chadha, N. K. (1985). Creativity and cognitive style. Psycho-Lingua, 15(2), 81-88.

Chaiña Sucasaca, G. (2016). Influencia de las características sociodemográficas y los medios de enseñanza en la creatividad de los estudiantes de Enfermería de la UNJBG, Tacna 2015 (Tesis). Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann – Tacna, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela Académico Profesional de Enfermería. Tacna, Perú. Retrieved from http://repositorio.unjbg.edu.pe/bitstream/han-dle/UNJBG/2196/781_2016_chaina_sucasaca_g_facs_enfermeria.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Chen, Ch. C., Gene Greene, P., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295-316. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00029-3

Cheung, P. Ch., & Lau, S. (2010). Gender differences in the creativity of Hong Kong school children: comparison by using the new electronic Wallach-Kogan creativity tests. Creativity Research Journal, 22(2), 194-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2010.481522

Cheung, Ch.-K., Rudowicz, E., Yue, X., & Kwan, A. S. F. (2003). Creativity of university students: what is the impact of field and year of study? Journal of Creative Behavior, 37(1), 42-63. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2003.tb00825.x

Corbalán Berná, F. J., Martínez Zaragoza, F., Donolo, D. S., Alonso Monreal, C., Tejerina Arreal, M., & Limiñana Gras, R. M. (2003). CREA. Inteligencia Creativa: Una medida Cognitiva de la Creatividad. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.

Couger, J. D. (1994). Creative problem solving and opportunity finding. Hinsdale, IL: Boyd & Fraser Publishing Co.

Couger, J. D. (1996). Creativity & innovation in information systems organizations. Danvers, MA: Boyd & Fraser. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.1996.495304

Crant, J. M. (1996). The proactive personality scale as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 34(3), 42-49.

Curtis, S., & Williams, J. (2002). The reluctant workforce: undergraduates’ part-time employment. Education + Training, 44(1), 5-10. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910210416192

Dacey, J. S., & Lennon, K. H. (1998). Understanding creativity: the interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

D’Amico, R. (1984). Does employment during high school impair academic progress? Sociology of Education, 57(3), 152-164. https://doi.org/10.2307/2112599

Dewett, T., & Gruys, M. L. (2007). Advancing the case for creativity through graduate business education. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2(2), 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2007.04.001

Durón, L., & Oropeza, R. (1999). Actividades de estudio: análisis predictivo a partir de la interacción familiar y escolar de estudiantes de nivel superior. Documento de trabajo. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México: UNAM.

Eggers, F., Lovelace, K. J., & Kraft, F. (2017). Fostering creativity through critical thinking: the case of business start-up simulations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 26(3), 266-276. https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12225

Elisondo, R. C., Donolo, D. S., & Rinaudo, M. C. (2009). Ocasiones para la creatividad en contextos de educación superior. Revista de Docencia Universitaria, 7(4). Retrieved from https://polipapers.upv.es/index.php/REDU/article/view/6233/6283

Epstein, R., Kaminaka, K., Phan, V., & Uda, R. (2013). How is creativity best managed? Some empirical and theoretical guidelines. Creativity and Innovation Management, 22(4), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12042

Esquivias Serrano, M. T. (2004). Creatividad: definiciones, antecedentes y aportaciones. Revista Digital Universitaria, 5(1), 1-17.

Fekula, M. J. (2011). Managerial creativity, critical thinking, and emotional intelligence: convergence in course design. Business Education Innovation Journal, 30(2), 92-101.

Fitó-Bertran, À., Hernández-Lara, A. B., & Serradell-López, E. (2014). Comparing student competences in a face-to-face and online business game. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 452-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.023

Gajda, A., Karwowski, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (2017). Creativity and academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(2), 269-299. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000133

Ghosh, K. (2014). Creativity in business schools: towards a need based developmental approach. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 15(2), 169-178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40171-013-0049-2

Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003, 8-10 October). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient for likert-type scales. Proceedings of Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education (pp. 82-88). Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education 2003. Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Guilford, J. P. (1962). Factors that aid and hinder creativity. Teachers College Record, 63, 380-392.

Guilford, J. P. (1956). The structure of intellect. Psychological Bulletin, 53(4), 267-293. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040755

Gundry, L. K., Ofstein, L. F., & Kickul, J. R. (2014). Seeing around corners: how creativity skills in entrepreneurship education influence innovation in business. The International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 529-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2014.03.002

Hartley, J., & Greggs, M. A. (1997). Divergent thinking in arts and science students: contrary imaginations at Keele revisited. Studies in Higher Education, 22(1), 93-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079712331381161

Holmes, V. (2008). Working to live: why university students balance full‐time study and employment. Education + Training, 50(4), 305-314. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910810880542

Kachelmeier, S. J., Reichert, B. E., & Williamson, M. G. (2008). Measuring and motivating quantity, creativity, or both. Journal of Accounting Research, 46(2), 341-373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-679X.2008.00277.x

Kaufman, J. C., Baer, J., Agars, M. D., & Loomis, D. (2010). Creativity stereotypes and the consensual assessment technique. Creativity Research Journal, 22(2), 200-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2010.481529

Kerr, Ch., & Lloyd, C. (2008a, 9-12 September). Developing creativity and innovation in management education: an artful event for transformative learning. Proceedings of the Fourth Art of Management and Organisation Conference. The Fourth Art of Management and Organisation Conference 2008. Banff, Alberta, Canada. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/10898903.pdf

Kerr, Ch., & Lloyd, C. (2008b). Pedagogical learnings for management education: developing creativity and innovation. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(5), 486-503. https://doi.org/10.5172/jmo.837.14.5.486

Limiñana Gras, R. M., Bordoy, M., Juste Ballesta, G., & Corbalán Berna, J. (2010). Creativity, intelectual abilities and response styles: implications for academic performance in the secondary school. Anales de Psicología, 26(2), 212-219.

Lucas, R., & Lammont, N. (1998). Combining work and study: an empirical study of full-time students in school, college and university. Journal of Education and Work, 11(1), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/1363908980110103

Matud, M. P., Rodríguez, C., & Grande, J. (2007). Gender differences in creative thinking. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(5), 1137-1147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.006

McIntyre, F. S., Hite, R. E., & Kay Rickard, M. (2003). Individual characteristics and creativity in the marketing classroom: exploratory insights. Journal of Marketing Education, 25(2), 143-149. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475303254014

McMullan, W. E., & Kenworthy, Th. P. (2015). Creativity and entrepreneurial performance: a general scientific theory. Series: exploring diversity in entrepreneurship. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Monreal, C. (2001). Qué es la creatividad. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.

Pefanis Schlee, R., & Harich, K. R. (2014). Teaching creativity to business students: how well are we doing? Journal of Education for Business, 89(3), 133-141. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2013.781987

Penagos-Corzo, J. C., & Aluni, R. (2000). Preguntas más frecuentes sobre creatividad. Creatividad e Innovación: Cursos, Técnicas, Información. Retrieved from http://inteligenciacreatividad.com/recur-sos/revista-psicologia/revista-psicologia-9/index.html

Phipps, S. T. A. (2012). Contributors to an enterprising gender: examining the influence of creativity on entrepreneurial intentions and the moderating role of political skill controlling for gender. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 18(1), 77-90.

Rinaudo, M. C., & Donolo, D. (1999). ¿Creatividad en educación? Retos actuales de la enseñanza universitaria. Contextos de Educación, 1(2), 202-219.

Rodríguez-Cano, R. A., & Mendoza-Fuentes, E. M. (2011). El Pensamiento divergente en universitarios: diferencias entre alumnos de psicología y de Bellas Artes. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 3(1), 299-305.

Rogers, C. R. (1959). Toward a theory of creativity. In H. H. Anderson (Ed.), Creativity and its cultivation (pp. 69-82). New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Runco, M. A. (2006). Creativity is always personal and only sometimes social. In J. A. Schaler (Ed.), Howard Gardner under fire: the rebel psychologist faces his critics (pp. 169-182). Series: Under Fire. Vol. 2. Chicago, IL: Carus Publishing Company.

Runco, M. A. (2007). Creativity. Theories and themes: research, development, and practice. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Runco, M. A. (1986). Flexibility and originality in children’s divergent thinking. The Journal of Psychology, 120(4), 345-352. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1986.9712632

Runco, M. A., & Acar, S. (2012). Divergent thinking as an indicator of creative potential. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 66-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.652929

Runco, M. A., Ebersole, P., & Mraz, W. (1991). Creativity and self-actualization. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6(5), 161-167.

Runco, M. A., Plucker, J. A., & Lim, W. (2001). Development and psychometric integrity of a measure of ideational behavior. Creativity Research Journal, 13(3-4), 393-400. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326934CRJ1334_16

Runco, M. A., Walczyk, J. J., Acar, S., Cowger, E. L., Simundson, M., & Tripp, S. (2014). The incremental validity of a short form of the ideational behavior scale and usefulness of distractor, contraindicative, and lie scales. Journal of Creative Behavior, 48(3), 185-197. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.47

Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T., & Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L. (2012). A correlational and predictive study of creativity and personality of college students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15(3), 1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n3.39398

Shalley, C. E., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2004). The effects of personal and contextual characteristics on creativity: where should we go from here? Journal of Management, 30(6), 933-958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.007

Scherer, R. F., Adams, J. S., Carley, S. S., & Wiebe, F. A. (1989). Role model performance effects on development of entrepreneurial career preference. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 53-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225878901300306

Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2004). Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence, and interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3), 498-518.

Schmidt-Wilk, J. (2011). Fostering management students’ creativity. Journal of Management Education, 35(6), 775-778. https://doi.org/10.1177/1052562911427126

Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s Alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0

Simonton, D. K. (1988). Scientific genius: a psychology of science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Soler, M. I. (2003). Creatividad en el ámbito universitario: la experiencia de Chile. Creatividad y Sociedad, 3, 39-45.

Sorensen, L., & Winn, S. (1993). Student loans: a case study. Higher Education Review, 25(3), 48-65.

Stoltzfus, G., Nibbelink, B. L., Vredenburg, D., & Thyrum, E. (2011). Gender, gender role, and creativity. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(3), 425-432. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2011.39.3.425

Tarling, C., Jones, P., & Murphy, L. (2016). Influence of early exposure to family business experience on developing entrepreneurs. Education + Training, 58(7/8), 733-750. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-03-2016-0050

The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. (2006). Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:394:0010:0018:en:PDF4

Torrance, E. P. (1998). Torrance tests of creative thinking: norms technical-manual figural (streamlined) forms A & B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service.

Torrance, E. P. (1966). Torrance tests of creative thinking: norms technical-manual research edition. Verbal tests, forms A and B. Figural tests, Forms A and B. Princeton: Personnel Press.

Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children: a study of the creativity-intelligence distinction. Oxford: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Wang, S.-Ch., Peck, K. L., & Chern, J.-Y. (2010). Difference in time influencing creativity performance between design and management majors. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 20(1), 77-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-008-9059-3

Watts, C. (2002). The effects of term-time employment on academic performance. Education + Training, 44(2), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910210419964

Watts, C., & Pickering, A. (2000). Pay as you learn: student employment and academic progress. Education + Training, 42(3), 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910010372670

Webster, M. A., & Walker, M. B. (1981). Divergent thinking in arts and science students: the effect of item content. British Journal of Psychology, 72(3), 331-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1981.tb02192.x

Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387-406. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00179.x

Wynder, M. (2008). Motivating creativity through appropriate assessment: lessons for management accounting educators. e-Journal of Business Education & Scholarship of Teaching, 2(2), 12-27.

Zampetakis, L. A. (2008). The role of creativity and proactivity on perceived entrepreneurial desirability. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3(2), 154-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2008.07.002

Zampetakis, L. A., Gotsi, M., Andriopoulos, C., & Moustakis, V. (2011). Creativity and entrepreneurial intention in young people: empirical insights from business school students. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 12(3), 189-199. https://doi.org/10.5367/ijei.2011.0037

Zampetakis, L. A., & Moustakis, V. (2006). Linking creativity with entrepreneurial intentions: a structural approach. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(3), 413-428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-006-0006-z

Zhang, L.-F. (2010). Do age and gender make a difference in the relationship between intellectual styles and abilities? European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25(1), 87-103. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-009-0006-9

Zhou, J. (2007). Leading for creativity: an employee-manager dyadic approach. In T. Davila, M. J. Epstein, & R. Shelton (Eds.), The creative enterprise: managing innovative organizations and people (pp. 17-36). Vol. 2: Culture. Series: Praeger Perspectives. Westport, London: Praeger.