Share:


Refraction correction in precise leveling observations for national leveling network first order

    Nikolay Dimitrov   Affiliation
    ; Ivan Georgiev Affiliation
    ; Petar Danchev   Affiliation

Abstract

The paper deals with some problems when applying a correction to reduce the effect of vertical refraction in precise leveling observation. An example for calculating the refraction correction for one first order leveling line with length of 109 km in Bulgaria is given. Comparison between the obtained errors before and after applying refraction correction has been made. The results show that is important to measure the temperatures simultaneously with the leveling by aspiration thermometer with an accuracy of ±0.1 °C. It is recommended to make experimental research and to adopt appropriate for Bulgaria model for taking into account the influence of vertical refraction.

Keyword : precise leveling, atmospheric refraction, national leveling network, leveling line, refraction correction, air temperature gradient

How to Cite
Dimitrov, N., Georgiev, I., & Danchev, P. (2020). Refraction correction in precise leveling observations for national leveling network first order. Geodesy and Cartography, 46(4), 159-162. https://doi.org/10.3846/gac.2020.11555
Published in Issue
Dec 16, 2020
Abstract Views
365
PDF Downloads
104
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Angus-Leppan, P. V. (1884). Refraction in geodetic levelling. In F. K. Brunner (Ed.), Geodetic refraction. Springer.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-45583-4_8

Belyashki, Т. (2004). Connecting the state levelling network of Bulgaria with the United European Levelling Network (UELN). Geodesy, Cartography, Land Surveying, 5–6, 3–5 (in Bulgarian).

Holdahl, S. R. (1981). A model of temperature stratification for correction of levelling refraction. In NOAA Technical Memorandum (NOS NGS 31). Rockville, Md.
https://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/AModelOfTemperatureStratificationForCorrectionOfLevelingRefraction_TM_NOS_NGS31.pdf

Hytonen, E. (1967). Measuring of the refraction in the second levelling of Finland. In Publication of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (No. 63). Helsinki, Finland.

Kukkamäki, T. J. (1939). Formulas and tables for computation of leveling refraction. In Publication of Geodetic Institute (No. 27). Helsinki, Finland.

Kukkamäki, T. J. (1978). Leveling refraction research, its present state and future possibilities. Symposium – International Astronomical Union, 89, 293–299. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0074180900066110

Murray, O. W. (1999). Digital leveling user’s guide. NOAA. https://topografiaepcc.unex.es/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Guide_leica_na3003.pdf

Sacher, M., Belyashki, T., Liebsch, G., & Ihde, J. (2004). Status of the UELN/EVRS database and results of the last UELN adjustment. Symposium of the IAG Subcommission for Europe (EUREF) held in Bratislava, 29(12), 232–235.