The influence of the technical dimension, functional dimension, and tenant satisfaction on tenant loyalty: an analysis based on the theory of planned behavior
This study primarily explored the influence of the technical dimension, functional dimension, and tenant satisfaction on tenant loyalty. The theory of planned behavior served as the basis of this study, and the three aforementioned factors (the technical dimension, the functional dimension, and tenant satisfaction) were incorporated into a conceptual framework for tenant loyalty. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed for parameter estimation. The participants consisted of tenants residing in eight administrative districts in Kaohsiung City. 315 questionnaires were administered, all of which were returned. After removing 15 invalid responses, there were 300 valid responses, which indicated an effective recovery rate of 95.2%. The results showed that the technical dimension, the functional dimension, and attitude significantly and positively influenced tenant satisfaction. Tenant satisfaction, perceived behavioral control, and social norms significantly and positively influenced tenant loyalty. Tenant satisfaction mediated the influence of the technical dimension and the functional dimension on tenant loyalty; the mediating effect of the functional dimension on tenant loyalty was greater than that of the technical dimension. The findings of this study highlight the measures rental companies should adopt in order to enhance the technical dimension, functional dimension, and tenant satisfaction, as this is crucial to maintaining sustainable operations.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intention to actions: a theory of planned behavior, action-control: from cognition to behaviour (pp. 11– 39). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2
Ajzen, I. (1987). Attitudes, traits, and actions: dispositional prediction of behavior in personality and social psychology. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 20, pp. 1–63). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60411-6
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-Hall.
Ajzen, I., & Madden, T. J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22(5), 453–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(86)90045-4
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.
Appel-Meulenbroek, R. (2008). Managing “keep” factors of office tenants to raise satisfaction and loyalty. Property Management, 26(1), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1108/02637470810848886
Avolio, B. J., Yammarino, F. J., & Bass, B. M. (1991). Identifying common methods variance with data collected from a single source: an unresolved sticky issue. Journal of Management, 17(3), 571–587. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700303
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327
Baharum, Z. A., Nawawi, A. H., & Saat, Z. M. (2009). Service quality and property management service: a conceptual framework. Journal of Built Environment, 6(1), 12–34.
Baloglu, S. (2002). Dimensions of customer loyalty: separating friends from wellwishers. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(1), 47–59.
Beverland, M., Farrelly, F., & Woodhatch, Z. (2004). The role of value change management in relationship dissolution: hygiene and motivational factors. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(9–10), 927–939.
Blocker, C. P., Flint, D. J., Myers, M. B., & Slater, S. F. (2011). Proactive customer orientation and its role for creating customer value in global markets. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(2), 216–233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-010-0202-9
Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., & Bonnes, M. (2003). Indexes of perceived residential environment quality and neighborhood attachment in urban environments: a confirmation study on the city of Rome. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00236-0
Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., & Bonnes, M. (2006). Perceived residential environmental quality in middle- and low-extension Italian cities. European Review of Applied Psychology, 56(11),
Boomsma, A., & Hoogland, J. J. (2001). The robustness of LISREL modeling revisited. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural equation models: present and future. A festschrift in honor of Karl Jöreskog (pp. 139–168). Scientific Software International.
Chang, S. S. (2001). Research method. Tsanghai Publishers.
Cheah, J. H., Ng, S. I., Lee, C., & Teoh, K. G. C. (2014). Assessing technical and functional features of office buildings and their effects on satisfaction and loyalty. International Journal of Economics and Management, 8(S), 137–176.
Cheah, J. H., Ng, S. I., Ting, H., Memon, M. A., & Loo, S. C. S. (2019). Customer orientation and office space performance: assessing the moderating effect of building grade using PLS-MGA. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 23(2), 117–129. https://doi.org/10.3846/ijspm.2019.7437
Cheah, J. H., Ting, H., Thaichon, P., Fam, K. S., & Bazylewich, M. (2020). Consumer attitude and intention toward ridesharing. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2020.1733050
Chen, K. Y., & Wang, C. H. (2011). Advanced statistical analysis using SPSS and AMOS. Wu-Nan Books.
Chen, S. M., & Shiu, D. W. (2016). The effects of the customer relationship management on tenant satisfaction and loyalty – an example from Tainan City. Journal of Architecture and Planning, 17(1), 7–8.
Chen, S. Y. (2003). Structural equation modeling: theory, techniques, and application of LISREL. Yeh Yeh Book Gallery.
Chen, Y. J. (2012). The relationships between residential satisfaction and the intention to move for the community residents [Master’s thesis]. Kun Shan University Graduate Institute of Real Estate Development and Management.
Chiu, H. J. (2009). Quantitative research and statistical analysis (3rd ed.). Wu-Nan Books.
Chung, Y. Y., & Su, W. K. (2014). The relationship between authentic leadership and quality of care-the mediating effect of nurse’s psychological contract. Journal of Health and Care Science, 2(2), 71–84.
Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591–621. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142015
Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics – Census GIS Platform. (2018). House ownership of ordinary households. https://census.dgbas.gov.tw/CensusGIS_Tile/?ClassIndex=1
Dogge, P., & Smeets, J. (2004). In search of customer loyalty. A research into the relationship between tenants’ satisfaction and commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(3–4), 111–120.
Falco, J. (2017, October 27). Kingsley: renter satisfaction holds steady, renewal intent drops slightly. https://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/property-management/kingsley-renter-satisfaction-holds-steady-renewal-intent-drops-slightly_o
Fazio, R. H., & Zanna, M. P. (1978). Attitudinal qualities relating to the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal of Social Experimental Psychology, 14(4), 398–408.
Fazio, R. H., & Zanna, M. P. (1981). Direct experience and attitude-behavior consistency. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 161–202). Academic.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley.
Flint, D. J., Blocker, C. P., & Boutin, P. J. (2011). Customer value anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: an empirical examination. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(2), 219–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.06.034
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
Freybote, J., & Gibler, K. M. (2011). Trust in corporate real estate management outsourcing relationships. Journal of Property Research, 28(4), 341–360. https://doi.org/10.1080/09599916.2011.592207
Fuentes-Blasco, M., Moliner-Velázquez, B., & Gil-Saura, I. (2014). Effect of customer heterogeneity on the relationship satisfaction–loyalty. Revista Española de Investigación en Marketing ESIC, 18(2), 78–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reimke.2014.06.002
Gasiorowska, A. (2014). The relationship between objective and subjective wealth is moderated by financial control and mediated by money anxiety. Journal of Economic Psychology, 43, 64–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2014.04.007
Gibler, K. M., Tyvimaa, T., & Kananen, J. (2014). The relationship between the determinants of rental housing satisfaction and considering moving in Finland. Property Management, 32(2), 104–124. https://doi.org/10.1108/PM-02-2013-0009
Gounaris, S., Dimitriadis, S., & Stathakopoulos, V. (2010). An examination of the effects of service quality and satisfaction on customers’ behavioral intentions in e-shopping. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(2), 142–156.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Pearson University Press.
Hair, J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). A Global Perspective.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.
Hong, X. M., & Chang, C. O. (1993). A study of housing management and maintenance influence on housing quality. City and Planning, 20(2), 1–22.
Hui, E. C. M., Wong, F. K. W., Chung, K. W., & Lau, K. Y. (2014). Housing affordability, preferences and expectations of elderly with government intervention. Habitat International, 43, 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.01.010
Hung, T.-Y., & Chang, C.-O. (2002). An analysis of the management and maintenance modes of condominium in Taipei. City and Planning, 29(3), 421–444.
Hwang, Y. (2008). The impact of uncertainty avoidance, social norms and innovativeness on trust and ease of use in electronic customer relationship management. Electron Markets, 19(2), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-009-0007-1
Kang, G. D. (2006). The hierarchical structure of service quality: integration of technical and functional quality. Managing Service Quality, 16(1), 37–50.
Kang, G., & James, J. (2004). Service quality dimensions: an examination of Gronroos’s service quality model. Managing Service Quality, 14(4), 277–295.
Kennedy, J. M., & Schneider, U. (2000). Measuring customer satisfaction: why, what and how? Total Quality Management, 11(7), 883–896. https://doi.org/10.1080/09544120050135434
Kim, S., Lee, J., & Yoon, D. (2015). Norms in social media: the application of theory of reasoned action and personal norms in predicting interactions with Facebook page like ads. Communication Research Reports, 32(4), 322–331.
Kirkpatrick, S., & Tarasuk, V. (2011). Housing circumstances are associated with household food access among low-income urban families. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 88(2), 284–296.
Kline, P. (1998). The new psychometrics: science, psychology and measurement. Routledge.
Kusbit, C., & Sutton, J. (1991). Tenant retention: making it hard to leave. Journal of Property Management, 56(1), 18–20.
Lee, C. C. (2012). Brand loyalty to housing brokerage firms-from buyers’ viewpoint. Management Review, 31(3), 73–100.
Lemke, F., Clark, M., & Wilson, H. (2011). Customer experience quality: an exploration in business and consumer contexts using repertory grid technique. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(6), 846–869.
Lercher, P. (2003). Which health outcomes should be measured in health related environmental quality studies. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1), 63–72.
Lin, S.-L., Chueh, J.-H., & Cheng, Y.-C. (2016). The effect of brand attitude on brand loyalty and price premium: the mediating role of emotional brand attachment Taiwan. Journal of International Business Studies, 10(2), 123–140.
Liu, T. C., & Wu, L. W. (2007). Customer retention and crossbuying in banking industry: an integration of service attributes, satisfaction and trust. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 12(2), 132–145. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.fsm.4760067
Malik, S. U. (2012). Customer satisfaction, perceived service quality. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(1), 68– 76. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v4n1p68
McDougall, G. H. G., & Levesque, T. (2000). Customer satisfaction with services: putting perceived value into the equation. Journal of Service Marketing, 14(5), 392–410.
Muhlebach, R. F. (1998). Tenant surveys benchmark success for management firms. National Real Estate Investor, 40(2), 159–160.
Myeda, N. E., Kamaruzzaman, S. N., & Pitt, M. (2011). Measuring the performance of office buildings maintenance management in Malaysia. Journal of Facilities Management, 9(3), 181–199. https://doi.org/10.1108/14725961111148090
Nath, R., Tomov, S., & Dongarra, J. (2010). Accelerating GPU kernels for dense linear algebra. In International Conference on High Performance Computing for Computational Science (pp. 83–92). Springer.
Naudé, P., & Buttle, F. (2000). Assessing relationship quality. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(4), 351–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-8501(00)00112-7
Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: a behavioral perspective on the consumer. McGrew-Hill.
Onibokun, A. G. (1974). Evaluating consumers satisfaction with housing: an application of a system approach. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 40(3), 189–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367408977468
Palm, P. (2016). Measuring customer satisfaction: a study of the Swedish real estate industry. Property Management, 34(4), 316–331. https://doi.org/10.1108/PM-08-2015-0041
Parasuraman, A. (1997). Reflections on gaining competitive advantage through customer value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(2), 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02894351
Parasuraman, A., & Grewal, D. (2000). The impact of technology on the quality-value-loyalty chain: a research agenda. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 28(1), 168–174.
Peng, T. K., Kao, Y. T., & Lin, C. C. (2006). Common method variance in management research: its nature, effects, detection, and remedies. Journal of Management, 23(1), 77–98.
Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1999). The elaboration likelihood model: current status and controversies. In S. Chaiken, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 37–72). The Guilford Press.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.
Poll, H. F. P. M. V. (1997). The perceived quality of the urban residential environment: a multi-attribute evaluation [Ph.D. dissertation]. University of Groningen.
Rasila, H. (2009). Customer relationship quality in landlord–tenant relationship. Property Management, 28(2), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1108/02637471011037107
Reinartz, W. J., Haenlein, M., & Henseler, J. (2009). An empirical comparison of the efficacy of covariance-based and variancebased SEM. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(4), 332–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2009.08.001
Robbins, S. P. (1994). Organizational behavior. Prentice-Hall.
Roos, D., & Hahn, R. (2017). Does shared consumption affect consumers’ values, attitudes, and norms? A panel study. Journal of Business Research, 77, 113–123.
Sanderson, D. C. (2019). Winning tenant’s loyalty in the private rented sector. Property Management, 37(3), 390–417. https://doi.org/10.1108/PM-08-2018-0050
Sarstedt, M., Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., Thiele, K. O., & Gudergan, S. P. (2016). Estimation issues with PLS and CBSEM: where the bias lies! Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 3998–4010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.06.007
Satsangi, M., & Kearns, A. (1992). The use and interpretation of tenant satisfaction surveys in British social housing. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 10(3), 317–331.
Seetharaman, A., Saravanan, A. S., Patwa, N., & Bey, J. M. (2017). The impact of property management services on tenants’ satisfaction with industrial buildings. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 4(3), 57–73. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2017.vol4.no3.57
Smith, J. R., Hogg, M. A., Martin, R., & Terry, D. J. (2007). Uncertainty and the influence of group norms in the attitude– behaviour relationship. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46(4), 769–792. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466606X164439
Smith, R. E., & Swinyard, W. R. (1983). Attitude behavior consistency: the impact of product trial versus advertising. Journal of Marketing Research, 20(3), 257–267.
Smith, R. E., & Swinyard, W. R. (1988). Cognitive response to advertising and trial: belief strength, belief confidence and product curiosity. Journal of Advertising, 17(3), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1988.10673118
Taylor, S., & Todd, P. (1995a). Decomposition and crossover effects in the theory of planned behavior: a study of consumer adoption intentions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 12(2), 137–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(94)00019-K
Taylor, S., & Todd, P. (1995b). Assessing IT usage: the role of prior experience. MIS Quarterly, 19(4), 561–570. https://doi.org/10.2307/249633
Taylor, S., & Todd, P. (1995c). Understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 144–176. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.6.2.144
Tikkanen, H., & Alajoutsijarvi, K. (2002). Customer satisfaction in industrial markets: opening up the concept. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 17(1), 25–42. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620210415181
Tsang, M. K. (2009). Investigating the tenant satisfaction: retention link of office buildings in Hong Kong [HKU theses online (HKUTO)]. https://www.sapnaonline.com/books/investigating-tenant-satisfaction-retention-link-meiki-1360964746-9781360964744
Turel, O., & Serenko, A. (2006). Satisfaction with mobile services in Canada: an empirical investigation. Telecommunications Policy, 30(5–6), 314–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2005.10.003
Zheng, S., Cheng, Y., & Ju, Y. (2019). Understanding the intention and behavior of renting houses among the young generation: evidence from Jinan, China. Sustainability, 11(6), 1507. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061507
Zins, A. H. (2001). Relative attitudes and commitment in customer loyalty models: some experiences in the commercial airline industry. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(3), 269–294.