Characteristics of Socio-Alive Building: the case of Bahrain city center

    Ashraf M. Soliman Affiliation
    ; Ali M. Alkhalefa Affiliation


Socio-Alive Building is Architecture where people enjoy being around to live within its environment and want to come back after leaving. This paper discusses the terminology of Socio-Alive Building and identifies the building characteristics which make a building social and alive. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the concept of alive-socio building as an approach to keep the building alive and have social role through the consideration of characteristics of socio-alive building. The paper begins by introducing the definitions of Socio-Alive Building and then discusses the characteristics of Socio-Alive Building to construct a theoretical background, then reports the outcomes of a survey in Bahrain to find out perceptions of people of Bahrain toward building characteristics, which could produce socio-alive build environments. A people’s survey concluded significance scale factors of building characteristics that achieve the sociality and alive of the building in Bahrain which were used to evaluate Bahrain City Center. The paper offers ten compromised building characteristics that can produce Socio-Alive with certain significance scale of each. The authors argue that these could be considered during design process to produce socio-alive buildings.

Keyword : alive architecture, Socio-Alive Building, Building characteristics, public space, form, Bahrain urbanization

How to Cite
Soliman, A. M., & Alkhalefa, A. M. (2018). Characteristics of Socio-Alive Building: the case of Bahrain city center. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 42(2), 155-168.
Published in Issue
Dec 5, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Al-Yaqoobi, L. H. (2013). Socio - architecture, a design approach for residential projects in Bahrain. Manama: Kingdom University.

Anthes, E. (2009). Building around the Mind. Scientific American Mind, 20, 52-59.

Baker, N., & Steemers, K. (2013). Daylight design of buildings. New York, USA: Earthscan.

Bean, R. (2014). Lighting: interior and exterior (2nd ed.). New York, USA: Routledge.

Big Timber Riverside House – Montana ranch by Hughesum-banhowar architects (2015, October 12). In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from

Ching, F. D. (2007). Architecture: form, space, and order (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New Jercy: John Wiley & Sons.

Dover, J. W. (2015). Green Infrastructure Incorporating plants and enhancing biodiversity in buildings and urban environments. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Edwards, B. (2013). How do green buildings pay? In E. W. Brian, & E. Naboni (Eds.), Green Buildings Pay Design, productivity and ecology (3rd ed., pp. 3-9). USA and Canada: Routledge.

Ercan, M. A. (2010). Less public than before? Public space improvement in Newcastle city centre. In A. Madanipour (Ed.), Whose public space? International case studies in urban design and development (pp. 21-50). New York, USA: Routledge.

Fontoynont, M. (Ed.). (2013). Daylight performance of buildings. Lyon, France: Earthscan.

Gatsby, C. (2014, August 05). Social architecture: a new approach to designing social spaces. Retrieved from

Gowans, A. (n.d.). Applied ornament. Retrieved from

Hobday, R. (2007). Light and life from the sun. In Daylight & Architecture Magazine by VELUX(6) (pp. 8-16). VELUX Group.

Kenneth, A. G., & Tammy, L. L. (2017). Green Gentrification Urban sustainability and the struggle for environmental justice. New York: Routledge from Taylor & Francis Group.

Koch, D., Marcus, L., & Steen, J. (2009). Architects are talking about space. In Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 28:1-28-8). Stockholm.

Kronenburg, R. (2015). Flexible architecture: continuous and developing. In B. Kolarevic, & V. Parlac (Eds.), Building dynamics: exploring architecture of change (pp. 30-42). New York: Routledge.

Kurtuncu, B., Koknar, S., & Dursun, P. (2008). Decoding spatial knowledge and spatial experience. In Proceedings of Design Train Congress, 2. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Landskrona Townhouse – Swedish Contemporary Home by Elding Oscarson (2016, October 3). In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from

LeCorbusier. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Lefebvre, H. (1999). The production of space. Malden: Blackwell. Retrieved from

Lehrer, J. (2011, April 14). The psychology of architecture. Retrieved from

Living building basics. (2017, August 05). Retrieved from

Love, M., & Grimley, C. (2007). Color, space, and style: all the details interior designers need to know but can never find. USA: Rockport Publishers, Inc.

Meek, C., & Wymelenberg, K. V. (2015). Daylighting and integrated lighting design. New York, USA: Routledge.

Moran, M. (2017, March 17). Flatiron Duplex Loft by Shelton Mindel & associates. Retrieved from

Multifamily Housing designed with a shiny colorful ceramic facade. (2016, May 11). In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from

Padovan, R. (2009). Proportion science, philosophy, architecture. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Pferdmenges, P. (2017, July 12). Alive architecture. Retrieved from

Proshansky, H., Fabian, A., & Kaminoff, R. (2014). Place-identity physical world socialization of the self. In J. J. Gieseking, W. Mangold, C. Katz, S. Low, & S. Saegert (Eds.), The people, place, and space reader (pp. 44-81). New York: Routledge.

Red Cup Sochi – retro futuristic interior by Allarts Design. (2016, October 12). In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from

Ronchi, L. (2015). Lighting, color, environment and complexity: an abridged historical review. Firenze, Italia.

Shaftoe, H. (2008). Convivial urban spaces creating effective public places. UK: Taylor & Francis.

Tatjana, S., & Jeremy, T. (2007). Flexible housing. New York: Routledge.

This Austin House enables a flexible lifestyle – Main Stay House by Matt Fajkus architecture. (2016, June 16). In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from

TV House is made Up by different volumes centered around a green space by Bruno Vanbesien architects. (2016, April 24). In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from

Yerolymbos, Y. (2016, March 20). White walls transforms the city Silhouette of Nicosia. In Home World Design Architecture & Design Magazin. Retrieved from