Toward a convergent model of flexibility in architecture
With recent advances in technology, fundamental changes have occurred in architectural flexibility methods, a great deal of experience has been gained, and many strategies and tactics have been developed in this field. However, a convergence is lacking in these experiences, methods, and tactics, which raises a need for providing a convergent approach in this regard. In this paper, it is going to propose such a model of flexibility. To do this, it is first reviewed the general concepts of flexibility, and provide a short review of its history and its main executional tactics. It is then divided its main tactics into eight main groups of: ‘open plan’, ‘pre-fabricated modules’, ‘similar spaces’, ‘extendable unit᾽, ‘attachment and detachment of adjacent units’, ‘common space between adjacent units’, ‘portable walls’, and ‘retractable furniture in a multifunctional space’. Analyzing these tactics, it is extracted the three fundamental principles of flexibility: ‘soft connection’, ‘diversity and multiplicity of spaces’, and ‘multifunctional space’. Accordingly, this paper proposes a concise rule for flexibility as: ‘soft connections between spaces’ which implies to the three principles if some special attentions are paid. Although the rule seems to be simple, the paper argumentations show that paying attention to what it implies, can produce much more flexible spaces than what is created generally. At the same time, new creative ideas along supported by new emerging technologies can enrich these simple solutions extensively.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Alexander, C. (2002b). The nature of order - book two. Berkeley: The Center for Environmental Structure.
Alexander, C., Ishikawa S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A pattern language. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bentley, I., Alcock, A., Murrain, P., McGlynn, S., & Smith, G. (1985). Responsive environments. London: The Architectural Press.
Capon, D. S. (1999). Architectural theory - volume one. U.K.: John Wiley.
Crinson, M. (2012). Stirling and Gowan: architecture from austerity to affluence. Paul Mellon Centre BA.
Einifar, A. (2003). A model to analyze residential spaces: based on flexible criteria of traditional housing. Journal of Fine Arts, 13, 64-77.
Ellin, N. (2006). Integral urbanism. New York: Routledge.
Gao, A. (2012). 100 home design principles. London: Design Media Publishing Limited.
Gardiner, S. (2002). The house: its origins and evolution. U.K.: Ivan R. Dee.
Ghezelbash, M., & Abouzia, F. (1985). Alphabets of Yazd traditional house. Tehran: Program and Budjet Organization.
Grütter, J. K. (1987). Ästhetik der Architektur: Grundlagen der Architektur-Wahrnehmung. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Jacobs, J. (1992). The death and life of great American Cities. Reissue edition: Vintage.
Jencks, C. (1987). What is post-modernism. New York: Second printing, Academy Editions.
Jencks, C., & Kropt, K. (2007). Theories and manifestoes of contemporary architecture. London: Wiley-Academy.
Kronenburg, R. (2002). Houses in motion. London: Wiley Academy.
Kronenburg, R. (2007). Flexible, architecture that responds to change. London: Laurence King Publishing.
Lynch, K. (1984). Good city form. USA: The MIT Press.
Marks, R. W. (1960). The Dymaxion world of Buckminister Fuller. New York: Southern Illinois University Press.
Norberg-Schulz, C. (1988). Architecture: meaning and place. New York: Rizzoli.
Paumier, C. (2004). Creating a vibrant city center. Washington: The Urban Land Institute.
Schneider, T., & Till, J. (2007). Flexible housing. Oxford: Architectural Press.
Schneider, T., & Till, J. (2005). Flexible housing: opportunities and limits. Architectural Research Quartely, 9(2), 157-166. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1359135505000199
Venturi, R. (1966). Complexity and contradiction in architecture. New York: The Museum of Modern Art.