Share:


Riverbank settlement and humanitarian architecture, the case of Mangunwijaya’s dwellings and 25 years after, Code river, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Noor Cholis Idham Affiliation

Abstract

Code riverbank has drawn worldwide attention since 90’s when Architect Mangunwijaya involved in the dispute of urban riverside settlement in Yogyakarta. Struggling for the slum between the municipality and the dwellers gradually dwindled, and one of most significant causes was his humanitarian dwelling self-help scheme on Kampung Code. The project, which was later recognized by Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1992, was not only purposed for reducing the tension but also promoting appropriate social order by considering the natural environment vulnerability. One of the poorest and most crook riverbank zones of the city had transformed to be a better environment with positive atmosphere afterward. Unfortunately, the project was hardly followed by other dwelling construction either in the site or other parts of the bank. This paper studies how the architecture could cure the social problems as well as resolve the environmental challenges and its sustainability. The social approaches done by Mangunwijaya and how he captured the high-risk of riverbank nature to the dwelling concepts were accessed. The results indicate that in spite of the riverside’s slum controversies, the architecture should be considered as a remedy both for social and natural problems.

Keyword : riverbank settlement, slum architecture, building safety, disaster risk reduction, contextual structure, Kampung Code

Published in Issue
Dec 5, 2018
Abstract Views
6
PDF Downloads
15
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Al-Radi, A. (1992). Kampung Kali Cho-de Yogyakarta. In A. Khan (Ed.), Technical review summary. Retrieved from https://www.archnet.org/sites/752/publications/933

Amalia, R. (2013). Perkembangan Kampung Code sebagai prototipe berkelanjutan membacaruang. Retrieved from https://www.membacaruang.com/perkembangan-kampung-code-sebagai-prototipe-berkelanjutan/

Ayodiya, N. R. P. (2014). Model Kebijakan Permukiman Kampung Code Utara di Tepi Sungai Code. Jurnal Pembangunan Wilayah dan Kota, 10(1), 22-32. https://doi.org/10.14710/pwk.v10i1.7630

Cahyadi, R. (2007). Politik ekologi bantaran Sungai. Universitas Indonesia.

Fabusuyi, T. (2017). Is crime a real estate problem? A case study of the neighborhood of East Liberty, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. European Journal of Operational Research, 268, 1050-1061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2017.12.003

Fahey, C. (2017). Urban or moral decay? The case of twentieth century Detroit. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 41(3), 170-183. https://doi.org/10.3846/20297955.2017.1301292

FEMA. (2014). Elevating your house. In FEMA P-312: home-owner’s guide to retrofitting (3rd ed.). FEMA. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/pdf/rebuild/mat/sec5.pdf

Friesen, J., Taubenböck, H., Wurm, M., & Pelz, P. F. (2018). The similar size of slums. Habitat International, 73, 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2018.02.002

Haryadi, T. (2014). Kampung Code Yogyakarta, Gambaran Kehidupan Masyarakat Miskin di Kota. Retrieved from https://www.gudangalamat.com/2015/08/kampung-code-yogyakarta-gambaran-kehidupan-masyarakat-miskin-dikota.html

Hutama, I. A. W. (2016). Exploring the sense of place of an urban Kampung. Retrieved from https://www.webapps.itc.utwente.nl/librarywww/papers_2016/msc/upm/hutama.pdf

Idham, N. C. (2014). Prinsip-prinsip desain arsitektur Tahan Gempa (1st ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi.

Istanto, F. H. (1999). Arsitektur “Guna Dan Citra” Sang Romo Mangun, in memoriam: Yusuf Bilyarta Mangunwijaya 6 Mei1929 – 10 Februari 1999. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, 27(2), 40-47. Retrieved from https://www.puslit.petra.ac.id/journals/architecture/

Kresna. (2014). Pemukiman Kali Code dimulai dari RT 127a. Retrieved from https://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/pemu-kiman-kali-code-dimulai-dari-rt-127a.html

Kumorotomo, W., Darwin, M., & Faturochman, M. A. (1995). The implementation of slum and squatter improvement programs in the river basins of Yogyakarta. Populasi, 6(2). Retrieved from https://www.fatur.staff.ugm.ac.id/file/JURNAL Populasi, 06%282%29, 1995.pdf

Lupiyanto, R. (2010). Merancang Kampung Hijau di Tepian Sungai Kota: Kasus Tegalpanggung Yogyakarta. In Buletin Penataan Ruang. Retrieved from https://www.tataruang.atrbpn.go.id/Bulletin/upload/data_artikel/Merancang Kampung Hijau di Tepian Sungai Kota.pdf

Mangunwijaya, Y. (1988). Wastu Citra. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Maryono, A. (2009). A study of stream buffer width (case study of rivers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province). Dinamika TEKNIK SIPIL, 9(1), 56-66. Retrieved from https://www.publikasiilmiah.ums.ac.id/xmlui/bitstreamhandle/11617/230/_9_ Agus Maryono-UGM _ok_.pdf?sequence=1

Miller, M. A., & Douglass, M. (2016). Introduction: decentralising disaster governance in urbanising Asia. Habitat International, 52, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.08.028

Minnery, J., Argo, T., Winarso, H., Hau, D., Veneracion, C. C., Forbes, D., & Childs, I. (2013). Slum upgrading and urban governance: Case studies in three South East Asian cities. Habitat International, 39, 162-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2012.12.002

Murty, C. (n.d.). Why are open-ground storey buildings vulnerable in Earthquakes? Retrieved from https://www.bmtpc.org

Nisbett, M. (2017). Empowering the empowered? Slum tourism and the depoliticization of poverty. Geoforum, 85, 37-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.007

Pratama, R. P. Y., Rachmawati, R., & Kunci, K. (2016). Analisis pemanfaatan dan keberadaan rusunawa di bantaran Kali Code Kota Yogyakarta. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia, 5(2). Retrieved from https://www.lib.geo.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/jbi/article/viewFile/712/685

Radja, A. M. (2011). 1.191 Rumah di bantaran Code tergenang - ANTARA news. Retrieved from https://www.antaranews.com/berita/250626/1191-rumah-di-bantaran-code-tergenang

Ragheb, G., El-Shimy, H., & Ragheb, A. (2016). Land for poor: towards sustainable master plan for sensitive redevelopment of slums. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 216, 417-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.056

Ramdhon, A. (2018). Kali Code: Dinamika Kampung Kota #1. Retrieved from https://www.kampungnesia.org/berita-kali-code--dinamika-kampung-kota-1.html

Redmond, L., & Desroches, R. (2012). Timber stilt homes. Retrieved from https://www.world-housing.net/WHEReports/wh100190.pdf

Rolnik, R. (2014). Special rapporteur on adequate housing on her mission to Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-54-Add1_ch.doc

Sagita, A. F., & Widiyanto, W. (2012). Penilaian tingkat bahaya lahar hujan di Sungai Code. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia, 1(3), 252-260. Retrieved from https://www.lib.geo.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/jbi/article/view/91/89

Sastrawati, I. (2009). The characteristics of the self-support stilt-houses towards the disaster potentiality at the Cambaya Coastal Area, Makassar. DIMENSI (Journal of Architecture and Built Environment), 37(1), 33-40. Retrieved from https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.907.2870&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Seftyono, C. (2012). Dilema implementasi kebijakan pembangunan bantaran Kali Code-Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada University. Retrieved from https://www.osf.io/wvkf5/download/ ?format=pdf

Setyaningrum, P., & Giyarsih, S. R. (2012). Identifikasi tingkat kerentanan sosial ekonomi penduduk bantaran Sungai Code Kota Yogyakarta terhadap bencana lahar Merapi. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia, 1(3). Retrieved from https://www.lib.geo.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/jbi/article/view/92/90

Silas, J. (1992). Kampong Kali Cho-de Yogyakarta. In Technical review, local report. Indonesia.

Sudaryatmo. (2016). Mencermati masalah rumah susun. Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.ylki.or.id/2016/05/mencermati-masalah-rumah-susun/

Sulistiyono, B. (2011). Prediksi Tinggi Genangan Banjir Kali Code di Kota Yogyakarta Pasca Erupsi Merapi Tahun 2010. In Seminar Nasional Pengembangan Kawasan Merapi: Aspek Kebencanaan dan Pengembangan Masyarakat Pasca Bencana (pp. 89-102). Yogyakarta: Universitas Islam Indonesia.

UN-Habitat. (2016). Urbanization and development: emerging futures (I). Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat). Retrieved from https://www.unhabitat.org

van Voorst, R. (2016). Formal and informal flood governance in Jakarta, Indonesia. Habitat International, 52, 5-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.08.023

Widodo, J. (2012). Urban environment and human behaviour: learning from history and local wisdom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 42, 6-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.08.023