Identifying contextual predictors of urban park utilization among inter-ethnic groups in Malaysia
Social interaction among diverse ethnic groups motivates people within communities to visit urban parks towards achieving social cohesion. Malaysians of different ethnic backgrounds spend their leisure time in urban parks because it offers opportunities for social interaction. The perception and requirement of attributes needed varies among the various ethnic groups of Malays, Chinese and Indians in order to be assured of their full utilization of the parks. This study investigates the urban park attributes that encourage the utilization of urban park by these three ethnic groups toward achieving social cohesion. Using a survey questionnaire method a total of 274 respondents were sampled at Batu Pahat urban parks in Johor, Malaysia. Afterwards, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse and validate respondents’ perception of urban park utilization. The findings show that aesthetics, safety, lighting, maintenance and cleanliness in public spaces attracted people to visit the urban park and contributed towards social cohesion.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. (1992). Assumptions of the two-step approach to latent variable modelling. Sociological Methods and Research, 20(3), 321-333. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192020003002
Antweiler, C. (2018). Urbanization and urban environments. In The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology (pp. 1-10). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Retrieved from http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/9781118924396.wbiea1585
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327
Balram, S., & Dragićević, S. (2005). Attitudes toward urban green spaces: integrating questionnaire survey and collaborative GIS techniques to improve attitude measurements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71(2), 147-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(04)00052-0
Barbosa, O., Tratalos, J. A., Armsworth, P. R., Davies, R. G., Fuller, R. A., Johnson, P., & Gaston, K. J. (2007). Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(2), 187-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.004
Basri, B. H. (2011). Valuing the attributes of malaysian recreational parks: a choice experiment approach (Doctoral dissertation). School of Agriculture, (Newcastle University).
Bedimo-Rung, A. L., Mowen, A. J., & Cohen, D. A. (2005). The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2, Supplement 2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.024
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
Bruse, M. (2007). Simulating human thermal comfort and resulting usage patterns of urban open spaces with a Multi- Agent System. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture PLEA (pp. 699-706).
Buchecker, M. (2009). Withdrawal from the local public place: Understanding the process of spatial alienation. Landscape Research. 34(3), 279-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/01426390902867968
Buckner, J. C. (1988). The development of an instrument to measure neighborhood cohesion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16(6), 771-791. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00930892
Carr, D. S., & Williams, D. R. (1993). Understanding the role of ethnicity in outdoor recreation experiences. Journal of Leisure Research, 25, 22-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1993.11969907
Cattella, V., Dinesb, N., Geslerc, W., & Curtisd, S. (2008). Mingling, observing, and lingering: Everyday public spaces and their implications for well-being and social relations. Health & Place, 14(2008), 544-561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.10.007
Chau, P. Y. K., & Hu, P. J.-H. (2001). Information technology acceptance by individual professional: A model comparison approach. Decision Sciences, 32(4), 699-719. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2001.tb00978.x
Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(1) (May), 129-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, NJ.
Cohen, J. (1992a). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112(1), 155. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.112.1.155
Cohen, J. (1992b). Statistical power analysis. Current directions in psychological. Current directions in psychological science, 98-101. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10768783
Coles, R. W., & Bussey, S. C. (2000). Urban forest landscapes in the UK – progressing the social agenda. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52, 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(00)00132-8
Cradock, L, A., Kawachi, I., Colditz, G. A., Gortmaker, S. L., & Buka, S. L. (2009). Neighborhood social cohesion and youth participation in physical activity in Chicago. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 427-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.10.028
Cranz, G. (1982). The politics of park design: a history of urban parks In America. The MIT Press.
Dickenson, C. P. (2014). Looking at public space – the Greek agora in Hellenistic and Roman times. Groniek, 198(198), 85-95.
Demerath, L., & Levinger, D. (2003). The social qualities of being on foot: a theoretical analysis of pedestrian activity, community, and culture. City & Community, 2(3), 217-237. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6040.00052
Easthope, H., & McNamara, N. (2013). Measuring social interaction and social cohesion in a high density urban renewal area: the case of Green Square. City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
Engel, L. J. (2002). Saul D. Alinsky and the Chicago school. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 16, 50e66. https://doi.org/10.1353/jsp.2002.0002
Fainstein, S. S. (2005). Cities and diversity. Urban Affairs Review, 41(1), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087405278968
Gehl, J., & Gemzøe, L. (2001 ). New city spaces. Copenhagen: The Danish Architectural Press.
Gilliland, J., Holmes, M., Irwin, J. D., & Tucker, P. (2006). Environmental equity is child’s play: mapping public provision of recreation opportunities in urban neighbourhoods. Taylor & Francis Group, Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1(3), 256-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450120600914522
Golicnik, B., & Ward Thompson, C. (2010). Emerging relationships between design and use of urban park spaces. Landscape and Urban Planning, 94, 38-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.07.016
Gómez, F., Tamarit, N., & Jabaloyes, J. (2001). Green zones, bioclimatics studies and human comfort in the future development of urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 55(3), 151-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00150-5
Goudarzi, M. (2013). The role of public participation on developing urban park. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies (Special Issue on Applied Sciences), 3(9) September 2013, 13-21.
Hair, J. F. Anderson, R. E. Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate data analysis with readings (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hesham, E. O., Ismail, S., & Hisyam, R. M. (2014). Residents’ perception towards social interaction among Malaysian ethnic groups in urban park. In Recent Trends in Social and Behaviour Sciences: Proceedings of the International Congress on Interdisciplinary Behaviour and Social Sciences 2013 (p. 9). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16658-4
Holland, C., Clark, A., Katz, J., & Peace, S. (2007). Social interactions in urban public places. Policy Press.
Huang, S.-C. L. (2006). A study of outdoor interactional spaces in high- rise housing. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78(3) (November), 193-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.07.008
James, P., Jamesa, P., Tzoulasa, K., Adamsb, M. D., Barberc, A., Boxd, J., Breustee, J., Elmqvistf, T., Frithg, M., Gordonh, C., Greeningi, K. L., Handleyj, J., Haworthk, S., Kazmierczaka, A. E., Johnstonl, M., Korpelam, K., Morettin, M., Niemeläo, J., Pauleitp, S., Roeq, M. H., Sadlerr, J. P., & Thompsons, C. W. (2009). Towards an integrated understanding of green space in the European built environment. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 8(2) 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.02.001
Jorgensen, A., Hitchmough, J., & Calvert, T. (2002). Woodland spaces and edges: their impact on perception of safety and preference Landscape and Urban Planning, 60(3), 135-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(02)00052-X
Jules, R. (2008). Streets as places. National endowment for the arts American Conservation Association The Laura Jane Musser Fund Surdna Foundation, Inc. ISBN 978-0-970-63245-6, AARP D19126.
Kasmon, N. B., Permarupan, P. Y., Al-Mamun, A., & Zainol, N. R. B. (2014). Examining the association between consumer satisfaction, complain handling and loyalty programs with consumer loyalty towards hypermarket in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. International Business and Management, 8(1), 15-19.
Lawson, G., & Liu, B. (2011, 11-16 April). Social interactions in Chinese Parks: a walk in Lu Xun Park. International Congress 2010 Healthy Parks Healthy People. Melbourne, Vic.
Lipton, S. (2002). The Value of Public Space, Foreword, York. CABE Space, London.
Lofland, L. H. (1998). The public realm: exploring the city’s quintessential social territory. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Lynch, K. (1984). Good city form. MIT Press.
Madanipour, A. (2010). Whose public space? International case studies in urban design and development (p. 8) Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203860946
Maleka, N. A., Mariapanb, M., & Shariffc, M. K. M. (2012). The making of a quality neighbourhood park: a path model approach. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 49, 202-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.07.019
Mansor, M. B. (2011). Experiential contacts of residents with green infrastructure network in Taiping (Doctoral dissertation). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Built Environment.
Nash, V., & Christie, I. (2003). Making sense of community (Vol. Ippr) London, Institute for Public Policy Research.
Ngesan, M. R., Karim, H. A., Zubir, S. S., & Ahma, P. (2013). Urban community perception on nighttime leisure activities in improving public park design. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 105, 619-631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.065
Nordh, H., & Østby, K. (2013). Pocket parks for people – a study of park design and use. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 12 (2013), 12-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.11.003
Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oguz, D. (2000). User surveys of Ankara‘s urban parks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52, 165-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(00)00130-4
Peinhardt, K, 2017. Still waiting for a nice place to sit. Project for Public Space. Retrieved from https://www.pps.org/article/still-waiting-nice-place-sit
Peters, K., Elands, B., & Buijs, A. (2010). Social interactions in urban parks: stimulating social cohesion? Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9(2) (January), 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.11.003
Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster. https://doi.org/10.1145/358916.361990
Sanesi, G., Lafortezza, R., Bonnes, M., & Carrus, G. (2006). Comparison of two different approaches for assessing the psychological and social dimensions of Green Spaces. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 5(3) (October), 121-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2006.06.001
Semenza, J. (2003). The intersection of urban planning, art, and public health: The Sunnyside Piazza. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1439. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1439
Shannon, S, C., & Werner, T. L. (2008). The opening of a municipal skate park: exploring the influence on youth skateboarders’ experiences. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(3) (2008), 42.
Shores, K. A., & West, S. T. (2010). Rural and urban park visits and park-based physical activity. Preventive medicine, 50, S13-S17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.07.023
Swanwick, C., Dunnett, N., & Woolley, H. (2003). Nature role and value of green space in towns and cities. An overview of Built Environment, 29, 94-106. https://doi.org/10.2148/benv.188.8.131.52467
Teig, E., Amulya, J., Bardwell, L., Buchenau, M., Marshall, J. A., & Litt, J. S. (2009). Collective efficacy in Denver, Colorado: Strengthening neighborhoods and health through community gardens. Health & Place, 15(2009), 1115-1122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.06.003
Tinsley, H., C. Tinsley, & C. Croskeys (2002). Park usage, social milieu, and psychosocial benefits of park use reported by older urban park users from four ethnic groups. Leisure Sciences, 24, 199-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400252900158
Völker, B., Flap, H. D., & Lindenberg, S. (2007). When are neighbourhoods commu- nities? Community in Dutch neighbourhoods. European Sociological Review, 23(1), 99-114. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcl022
Wagner, L. & Peters, K. (2014). Feeling at home in public: diasporic Moroccan women negotiating leisure in Morocco and the Netherlands. Gender, Place & Culture, 21(4), 415-430. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2013.793658
Williams, K., & Green, S. (2001). Literature review of public space and local environments for the cross cutting review. Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions.
Zhou, X., & Rana, M. M. P. (2012). Social benefits of urban green space: A conceptual framework of valuation and accessibility measurements. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 23(2), 173-189.