Greening human resource management and employee commitment toward the environment: An interaction model
In response to a greater environmental awareness, organizations are concerned more and more about the “greening” human resource management (GHRM). Although the literature on GHRM has been extending, published studies have paid little attention to the research of GHRM and its contribution to employee commitment toward the environment, especially the interactions of GHRM practices, so far. Thus, to bridge this research gap, this study extends the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity and the Social exchange theories in the green context by investigating a new conceptual framework, which explores the indirect and interactive effects of GHRM practices (training, reward, and organizational culture) on employee environmental commitment. A quantitative study is conducted through a survey involving 209 respondents. Findings suggest that: (1) three GHRM practices are important tools in stimulating directly employees to commit to the environmental activities, (2) a two-way interaction of green training and green organizational culture can unlock employee commitment for the environment, especially at the high and average levels of green organizational culture, (3) the commitment is also increased significantly through a three-way interaction, the two strongest effects are recognized with the conditions of high-green organizational culture and the average- and high-green reward, whereas (4) the interacting between green training and green reward is an unimportant factor in encouraging employee environmental attachment.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Amui, L. B. L., Jabbour, C. J. C., de Sousa Jabbour, A. B. L., & Kannan, D. (2017). Sustainability as a dynamic organizational capability: a systematic review and a future agenda toward a sustainable transition. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 308-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.103
Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C. D. (1982). The missing opportunity in organizational research: Some Implications for a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 560-569. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1982.4285240
Bos-Nehles, A. C., Van Riemsdijk, M. J., & Kees Looise, J. (2013). Employee perceptions of line management performance: Applying the AMO theory to explain the effectiveness of line managers’ HRM implementation. Human Resource Management, 52(6), 861-877. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21578
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Massoud, J. A. (2012). The role of training and empowerment in environmental performance: A study of the Mexican maquiladora industry. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 32(5), 631-647. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443571211226524
Dumont, J., Shen, J., & Deng, X. (2017). Effects of Green HRM practices on employee workplace Green Behavior: The Role of Psychological green climate and employee green values. Human Resource Management, 56(4), 613-627. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21792
Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2(1), 335-362. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.02.080176.002003
Fernandez, E., Junquera, B., & Ordiz, M. (2003). Organizational culture and human resources in the environmen-tal issue. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(4), 634-656. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958519032000057628
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312
Govindarajulu, N., & Daily, B. F. (2004). Motivating employees for environmental improvement. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 104(3), 364-372. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635570410530775
Guerci, M., Longoni, A., & Luzzini, D. (2016). Translating stakeholder pressures into environmental performance – the mediating role of green HRM practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(2), 262-289. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1065431
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Uppersaddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152. https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202
Harvey, G., Williams, K., & Probert, J. (2013). Greening the airline pilot: HRM and the green performance of airlines in the UK. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(1), 152-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.669783
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85(1), 4-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100
Hayes, A. F., & Rockwood, N. J. (2017). Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 98, 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.001
Hitka, M., Kozubíková, Ľ., & Potkány, M. (2018). Education and gender-based differences in employee motivation. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 19(1), 80-95. https://doi.org/10.3846/16111699.2017.1413009
Howard-Grenville, J., Buckle, S. J., Hoskins, B. J., & George, G. (2014). Climate change and management. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 615-623. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2014.4003
Jabbour, C. J. C. (2015). Environmental training and environmental management maturity of Brazilian companies with ISO14001: Empirical evidence. Journal of Cleaner Production, 96, 331-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.10.039
Jabbour, C. J. C., & Santos, F. C. A. (2008). Relationships between human resource dimensions and environmental management in companies: proposal of a model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.07.025
Jabbour, C. J. C., Santos, F. C. A., & Nagano, M. S. (2010). Contributions of HRM throughout the stages of environmental management: Methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 1049-1089. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585191003783512
Jackson, S. E., & Seo, J. (2010). The greening of strategic HRM scholarship. Organisation Management Journal, 7(4), 278-290. https://doi.org/10.1057/omj.2010.37
Jia, J., Liu, H., Chin, T., & Hu, D. (2018). The continuous mediating effects of GHRM on employees’ Green Passion via transformational leadership and Green creativity. Sustainability, 10(9), 3237. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093237
Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., & Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 55(6), 1264-1294. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.0088
Katou, A. A., Budhwar, P. S., & Patel, C. (2014). Content vs. process in the HRM-performance relationship: An empirical examination. Human Resource Management, 53(4), 527-544. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21606
Kim, Y. J., Kim, W. G., Choi, H. M., & Phetvaroon, K. (2019). The effect of green human resource management on hotel employees’ eco-friendly behavior and environmental performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.04.007
Lepak, D. P., Liao, H., Chung, Y., & Harden, E. E. (2006). A conceptual review of human resource management systems in strategic human resource management research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 25, 217-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-7301(06)25006-0
Liu, Z., Li, J., Zhu, H., Cai, Z., & Wang, L. (2014). Chinese firms’ sustainable development-The role of future orientation, environmental commitment, and employee training. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 31(1), 195-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-012-9291-y
Luu, T. T. (2018). Employees’ green recovery performance: the roles of green HR practices and serving culture. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1308-1324. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1443113
Macduffie, J. P. (1995). Human Resource bundles and manufacturing performance: Organizational Logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(2), 197. https://doi.org/10.2307/2524483
Masri, H. A., & Jaaron, A. A. M. (2017). Assessing green human resources management practices in Palestinian manufacturing context: An empirical study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 143, 474-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.087
Mercadé-Melé, P., Molinillo, S., Fernández-Morales, A., & Porcu, L. (2018). CSR activities and consumer loyalty: The effect of the type of publicizing medium. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 19(3), 431-455. https://doi.org/10.3846/jbem.2018.5203
Nguyen, T. T., Mia, L., Winata, L., & Chong, V. K. (2017). Effect of transformational-leadership style and management control system on managerial performance. Journal of Business Research, 70, 202-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.08.018
Nishii, L. H., Lepak, D. P., & Schneider, B. (2008). Employee attributions of the “why” of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviors, and customer satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 61(3), 503-545. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00121.x
Nunally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). The assessment of reliability. Psychometirc Theory, 3(1), 248-292.
Paillé, P., & Boiral, O. (2013). Pro-environmental behavior at work: Construct validity and determinants. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 118-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.07.014
Paillé, P., & Mejía-Morelos, J. H. (2014). Antecedents of pro-environmental behaviours at work: The moderating influence of psychological contract breach. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 124-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.01.004
Perez, O., Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Shterental, T. (2009). The dynamic of corporate self-regulation: ISO 14001, environmental commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Law and Society Review, 43(3), 593-630. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5893.2009.00383.x
Perron, G. M., Côté, R. P., & Duffy, J. F. (2006). Improving environmental awareness training in business. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(6–7), 551-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.07.006
Pham, N. T., Phan, Q. P. T., Tučková, Z., Vo, N., & Nguyen, L. H. L. (2018). Enhancing the organizational citizenship behavior for the environment: the roles of green training and organizational culture. Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 13(4), 1174-1189. https://doi.org/10.2478/mmcks-2018-0030
Pham, N. T., Tučková, Z., & Jabbour, C. J. C. (2019). Greening the hospitality industry: How do green human resource management practices inﬂuence organizational citizenship behavior in hotels? A mixed-methods study. Tourism Management, 72, 386-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.12.008
Pinzone, M., Guerci, M., Lettieri, E., & Redman, T. (2016). Progressing in the change journey towards sustainability in healthcare: The role of “Green” HRM. Journal of Cleaner Production, 122, 201-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.031
Potocan, V., Nedelko, Z., Peleckienė, V., & Peleckis, K. (2016). Values, environmental concern and economic concern as predictors of enterprise environmental responsiveness. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 17(5), 685-700. https://doi.org/10.3846/16111699.2016.1202315
Raineri, N., & Paillé, P. (2016). Linking corporate policy and supervisory support with environmental citizenship behaviors: The role of employee environmental beliefs and commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(1), 129-148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2548-x
Reinholt, M., Pedersen, T., & Foss, N. J. (2011). Why a central network position isn’t enough: The role of motivation and ability for knowledge sharing in employee networks. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1277-1297. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.0007
Ren, S., Tang, G., & E. Jackson, S. (2018). Green human resource management research in emergence: A review and future directions. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 35(3), 769-803. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-017-9532-1
Renwick, D. W. S., Redman, T., & Maguire, S. (2013). Green human resource management: A review and research agenda*. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2011.00328.x
Saeed, B. Bin, Afsar, B., Hafeez, S., Khan, I., Tahir, M., & Afridi, M. A. (2018). Promoting employee’s proenvironmental behavior through green human resource management practices. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1694
Saunders, P., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students (5th ed.). London: Pearson Education Limited.
Siemsen, E., Roth, A. V., & Balasubramanian, S. (2008). How motivation, opportunity, and ability drive knowledge sharing: The constraining-factor model. Journal of Operations Management, 26(3), 426-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2007.09.001
Siyambalapitiya, J., Zhang, X., & Liu, X. (2018). Green human resource management: A proposed model in the context of Sri Lanka’s tourism industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 201, 542-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.305
Tang, G., Chen, Y., Jiang, Y., Paillé, P., & Jia, J. (2018). Green human resource management practices: scale development and validity. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 56(1), 31-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7941.12147
Wang, H., Tong, L., Takeuchi, R., & George, G. (2016). Corporate social responsibility: An overview and new research directions. Academy of Management Journal, 59(2), 534-544. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2016.5001
Zaid, A. A., Jaaron, A. A. M., & Talib Bon, A. (2018). The impact of green human resource management and green supply chain management practices on sustainable performance: An empirical study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 204, 965-979. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.062