Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and leadership: validation of a multi-factor framework in the United Kingdom (UK)
Global surveys indicate that employee engagement costs nearly £70 billion per year in the UK alone with nascent improvement from 2011 to this date. Recognising employee disengagement as a threat to global socio-economic sustainability, experts and scholars offer CSR and employee-centric leadership as practical solutions. Visionary and servant leadership incite superior employee efforts through fair and ethical work values, but past theory and research show limited research on micro-processes that link CSR to employee outcomes. This study tested a value-centered model to examine if the two leadership styles and overall fairness can explain the positive relationship between CSR and extra effort. Data analysis of 512 employee self-reports using the structural equation modelling (SEM), the PROCESS approach and other techniques showed that executive’s CSR values cue to employee visionary and servant leadership, which influence extra effort both directly and indirectly (through overall fairness). Even though employees strongly endorsed the positive influence of universal visionary prototype, overall fairness was more strongly perceived in servant leadership. The paper offers practical implications for organizational theorists and practitioners.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836-863. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2007.25275678
Aguinis, H. (2011). Organizational responsibility: Doing good and doing well. APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol 3: Maintaining, Expanding, and Contracting the Organization, 3, 855-879. https://doi.org/10.1037/12171-024
Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932-968. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311436079
Ambrose, M. L., & Schminke, M. (2009). The role of overall justice judgments in organizational justice research: A test of mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 491-500. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013203
Austin, J. E. (1997). Social enterprise series No. 2: Making business sense of community service (Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 98-020).
Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 421-449. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163621
Bacha, E., & Walker, S. (2013). The relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ perceptions of fairness. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(3), 667-680. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1507-z
Bansal, P. (2003). From issues to actions: The importance of individual concerns and organizational values in responding to natural environmental issues. Organization Science, 14(5), 510-527. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.14.5.510.16765
Barbuto, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group and Organization Management, 31(3), 300-326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601106287091
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1997). Full range leadership development: Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Mind Garden. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.my/books?id=qK1ypwAACAAJ&dq=%5BCITATION%5D+Full+range+leadership+development:+Manual+for+the+Multifactor+Leadership+Questionnaire&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y
Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00016-8
Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. S. (1986). Interactional justice: communication criteria of fairness. In R. J. Lewicki, B. H. Sheppard, & M. H. Bazerman (Eds.), Research in negotiations in organizations (pp. 43-55). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Carmeli, A., Gilat, G., & Waldman, D. A. (2007). The role of perceived organizational performance in organizational identification, adjustment and job performance. Journal of Management Studies, 44(6), 972-992. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00691.x
Carter, S. M., & Greer, C. R. (2013). Strategic leadership: Values, styles, and organizational performance. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 20(4), 375-393. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051812471724
Cho, J., & Dansereau, F. (2010). Are transformational leaders fair? A multi-level study of transformational leadership, justice perceptions, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 409-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.006
Choi, J. (2008). Event justice perceptions and employees’ reactions: Perceptions of social entity justice as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 513-528. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.513
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.
Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 386-400. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.386
Colquitt, J. A., & Zipay, K. P. (2015). Justice, fairness, and employee reactions. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2(1), 75-99. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111457
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. SAGE Publications.
Cropanzano, R., & Rupp, D. E. (2008). Social exchange theory and organizational justice job performance, citizenship behaviors, multiple foci, and a historical integration of two literatures. In S. W. Gilliland, D. D. Steiner, & D. P. Skarlicki (Eds.), Justice, morality, and social responsibility (pp. 63-99). Information Age Publishing.
Davis, J. H., Schoorman, F. D., Donaldson, L., Academy, T., & Jan, N. (2008). Toward a stewardship theory of management toward a stewardship theory of management. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 20-47. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1997.9707180258
De Cremer, D., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2002). How do leaders promote cooperation? The effects of charisma and procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 858-866. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.5.858
de Luque, M. S., Washburn, N. T., Waldman, D. A., & House, R. J. (2008). Unrequited profit: how stakeholder and economic values relate to subordinates’ perceptions of leadership and firm performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(4), 626-654. https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.53.4.626
Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2004.tb02484.x
Flynn, C. B., Smither, J. W., & Walker, A. G. (2016). Exploring the relationship between leaders’ core self-evaluations and subordinates’ perceptions of servant leadership: A field study. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 23(3), 260-271. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051815621257
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104
Gallup Consulting. (2017). State of the Global Workplace. Executive Summary (pp. 1-122). Retrieved from https://www.gallup.com/workplace/238079/state-global-workplace-2017.aspx
Gallup Inc. (2013). State of the Global Workplace: Employee engagement insights for business leaders worldwide. Gallup Business Journal, 117. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com
Ghoshal, S. (2005). Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(1), 75-91. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2005.16132558
Ghoshal, S., & Bartlett, C. A. (1999). A new manifesto for management. International Journal of Conflict Management, 10(2), 130-153.
Ghoshal, S., & Moran, P. (1996). Bad for practice: A critique of the transaction cost theory. Academy Management Review, 21(1), 13-47. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1996.9602161563
Glavas, A. (2016a). Corporate social responsibility and employee engagement: Enabling employees employ more of their whole selves at work. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00796
Glavas, A. (2016b). Corporate social responsibility and organizational psychology: An integrative review. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00144
Glavas, A. (2017). Corporate social responsibility viewed from above: a review of macro-csr research, concepts and controversies, and stakeholder-targeted practices. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/csr/presentations/CSR%20Viewed%20from%20Above%20-%20without%20video.pdf
Glavas, A., & Kelley, K. (2014). The effects of perceived corporate social responsibility on employee attitudes. Business Ethics Quarterly, 24(02), 165-202. https://doi.org/10.5840/beq20143206
Glavas, A., & Piderit, S. K. (2009). How does doing good matter? Effects of corporate citizenship on employees. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, (36), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.9774/GLEAF.4700.2009.wi.00007
Gotsis, G., & Grimani, K. (2016). The role of servant leadership in fostering inclusive organizations. Journal of Management Development, 35(8), 985-1010. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-07-2015-0095
Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant Leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press.
Groves, K. S. (2014). Examiningleader–follower congruence of social responsibility values in transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 21(3), 227-243. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813498420
Hay. (2007). East meets West Bridging two great business cultures. Hay Group.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. The Guildford Press.
Hillman, A. J., & Keim, G. D. (2001). Shareholder Value, stakeholder management, and social issues: What’s the bottom line? Strategic Management Journal, 22, 125-139. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0266(200101)22:2<125::AID-SMJ150>3.0.CO;2-H
Hoch, J. E., Bommer, W. H., Dulebohn, J. H., & Wu, D. (2018). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 44(2), 501-529. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316665461
House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management, 23(3), 409-473. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639702300306
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations. The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. SAGE Publications. Retrieved from http://books.google.de/books?id=_KsXEJQg9pkC&dq=intitle:Culture+Leadership+I+Organizations&hl=&cd=1&source=gbs_api%5Cnpapers2://publication/uuid/512B92AA-A29D-4E9F-9B45-59376DAF9E6F
House, R. J., & Shamir, B. (1993). Toward the integration of transformational, charismatic, and visionary thories. In M. M. Chemers, & R. Ayman (Eds.), Leadership theory and research: perspectives and directions (pp. 81-108). Academic Press.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Jaiswal, N. K., & Dhar, R. L. (2017). The influence of servant leadership, trust in leader and thriving on employee creativity. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 38(1), 2-21. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-02-2015-0017
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods. Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 233-244. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105285144
Janson, A., Levy, L., Sitkin, S. B., & Lind, E. A. (2008). Fairness and other leadership heuristics: A fournation study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(2), 251-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320701746510
Jones, D. A. (2010). Does serving the community also serve the company? Using organizational identification and social exchange theories to understand employee responses to a volunteerism programme. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(4), 857-878. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X477495
Jones, D. A., & Martens, M. L. (2008). The mediating role of overall fairness and the moderating role of trust certainty in justice-criteria relationships: the formation and use of fairness heuristics in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(8), 1025-1051. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.577
Jones, T. M., & Wicks, A. C. (1999). Convergent stakeholder theory. Academy of Management Review, 24(2), 206-221. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1999.1893929
Judge, T. A., & Piccol, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755-768. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755
Kantabutra, S., & Avery, G. C. (2011). Follower effects in the visionary leadership process. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 4(5). https://doi.org/10.19030/jber.v4i5.2665
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. The Guilford Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1998-02720-000&site=ehost-live
Krafft, P., Engelbrecht, A. S., & Theron, C. C. (2004). The influence of transformational and transactional leadership on dyadic trust relationships through perceptions of fairness. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30(1), 10-18. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v30i1.142
Lapointe, É., & Vandenberghe, C. (2018). Examination of the relationships between servant leadership, organizational commitment, and voice and antisocial behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 148(1), 99-115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-3002-9
Laub, J. A. (1999). Assessing the servant organization: Development of the Organizational Leadership Assessment (OLA) model (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(2), 308A (UMI No. 9921922).
Levering, R., & Moskowitz, M. (1998). The 100 best companies to work for in America. Fortune, 137(1), 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1108/hrmid.2010.04418ead.004
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0034
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.01.006
Lin, C.-P., Lyau, N.-M., Tsai, Y.-H., Chen, W.-Y., & Chiu, C.-K. (2010). Modelingcorporate citizenship and its relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(3), 357-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0364-x
Lind, E. A. (2001). Fairness heuristic theory: Justice judgments as pivotal cognitions in organizational relations. In J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in Organizational Justice (pp. 56-88). Stanford University Press.
Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114-121. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.114
LinkedIn Learning. (2018). 2018 workplace learning report: the rise and responsibility of talent development in the new labor market. Retrieved from https://learning.linkedin.com/content/dam/me/learning/en-us/pdfs/linkedin-learning-workplace-learning-report-2018.pdf
Linuesa-Langreo, J., Ruiz-Palomino, P., & Elche-Hortelano, D. (2017). New strategies in the new millennium: Servant leadership as enhancer of service climate and customer service performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 786. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00786
Lord, R. G., & Brown, D. J. (2001). Leadership, values, and subordinate self-concepts. Leadership Quarterly, 12(2), 133-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(01)00072-8
Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the mlq literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 385-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(96)90027-2
Maignan, I., Ferrell, O. C., & Hult, G. T. M. (1999). Corporate citizenship: Cultural antecedents and business benefits. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), 455-469. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070399274005
Margolis, J. D., & Walsh, J. P. (2003). Misery loves companies: Rethinking social initiatives by business. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48(2), 268. https://doi.org/10.2307/3556659
Mayer, D. M., Bardes, M., & Piccolo, R. F. (2008). Do servant-leaders help satisfy follower needs? An organizational justice perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(2), 180-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320701743558
McGee-Cooper, A., & Looper, G. (2001). The essentials of servant-leadership: Principles in practice. Innovations in Management Series. Pegasus Communications.
Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6), 845-855. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.845
Mudrack, P. (2007). Individual personality factors that affect normative beliefs about the rightness of corporate social responsibility. Business & Society, 46(1), 33-62. https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650306290312
Muller, A., & Kolk, A. (2010). Extrinsic and intrinsic drivers of corporate social performance: Evidence from foreign and domestic firms in Mexico. Journal of Management Studies, 47(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00855.x
Newman, A., Schwarz, G., Cooper, B., & Sendjaya, S. (2017). How servant leadership influences organizational citizenship behavior: The roles of LMX, empowerment, and proactive personality. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(1), 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2827-6
Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 157-164. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.157
Panaccio, A., Henderson, D. J., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Cao, X. (2015). Toward an understanding of when and why servant leadership accounts for employee extra-role behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(4), 657-675. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-014-9388-z
Parry, K. W., & Proctor-Thomson, S. B. (2002). Perceived integrity of transformational leaders in organisational settings. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013077109223
Patrnchak, J. M. (2015). Implementing servant leadership at cleveland clinic: A case study in organizational change. Servant Leadership: Theory and Practice, 2(1), 36-48.
Pillai, R., Scandura, T. A., & Williams, E. A. (1999). Leadership and organizational justice: and across similarities differences cultures Rajnandini Pillai. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(4), 763-779. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490838
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Ramus, C. A., & Steger, U. (2000). The roles of supervisory support behaviors and environmental policy in employee “ecoinitiatives” at leading-edge European companies. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 605-626. https://doi.org/10.2307/1556357
Rasool, I., & Rajput, A. (2017). The impact of perceived internal corporate social responsibility on organizational citizenship behavior: A micro-perspective analysis. Business & Economic Review, 9(1), 181-201. https://doi.org/10.22547/BER/9.1.10
Rupp, D., E. (2011). An employee-centered model of organizational justice and social responsibility.Organizational Psychology Review, 1(1), 72-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041386610376255
Rupp, D. E., Ganapathi, J., Aguilera, R. V., & Williams, C. A. (2006). Employee reactions to corporate social responsibility: an organizational justice framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 537-543. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.380
Sashkin, M., & Sashkin, M. G. (2003). Leadership that matters. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Searle, T. P., & Barbuto, J. E. (2011). Servant leadership, hope, and organizational virtuousness: A framework exploring positive micro and macro behaviors and performance impact. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18(1), 107-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051810383863
Shen, J., & Benson, J. (2016). When CSR is a social norm: How socially responsible human resource management affects employee work behavior. Journal of Management, 42(6), 1723-1746. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314522300
Smith, B. N., Montagno, R. V., & Kuzmenko, T. N. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190401000406
Sousa, M., & van Dierendonck, D. (2017). Servant leadership and the effect of the interaction between humility, action, and hierarchical power on follower engagement. Journal of Business Ethics, 141(1), 13-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2725-y
Thibaut, J. W., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. L. Erlbaum Associates.
Trueman, D. (2013). The effectiveness of servant leadership in bringing about change. Senior Honors Thesis. 366. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/honors/366
Tuzzolino, F., & Armandi, B. R. (1981). A need-hierarchy framework for assessing corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 21-28.
van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1228-1261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310380462
van Dierendonck, D., & Nuijten, I. (2011). The servant leadership survey: development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 249-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9194-1
van Knippenberg, D., De Cremer, D., & van Knippenberg, B. (2007). Leadership and fairness: The state of the art. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 126(2), 113-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320701275833
Walumbwa, F. O., Hartnell, C. A., & Oke, A. (2010). Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 517-529. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018867
Weaver, G. R., Treviño, L. K., & Cochran, P. L. (1999). Integrated and decoupled corporate social performance: Management commitments, external pressures, and corporate ethics practices. Academy of Management Journal, 42(5), 539-552. https://doi.org/10.2307/256975
Weston, R., & Gore, P. A. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006286345
Winston, B., & Fields, D. (2015). Seeking and measuring the essential behaviors of servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(4). https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-10-2013-0135
Wu, X., Sturman, M. C., & Wang, C. (2013). The motivational effects of pay fairness: A longitudinal study in Chinese star-level hotels. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(2), 185-198. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965512471891
Yoshida, D. T., Sendjaya, S., Hirst, G., & Cooper, B. (2014). Does servant leadership foster creativity and innovation? A multi-level mediation study of identification and prototypicality. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1395-1404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.08.013
Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations. Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1086/651257