Impact of organizational factors on delays in BIM-based coordination from a decision-making view: a case study

    Sejun Jang   Affiliation
    ; Ghang Lee Affiliation


This study analyzed the impact of organizational factors on delays in building information modeling (BIM)- based coordination for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems from the decision-making perspective. Recently BIM-based coordination has been regarded as a critical phase in project delivery but suffers from delays during the coordination process. This study investigated three complexity factors that often contribute to coordination delays: the number of participants – the total number of participants involved in a decision-making process for resolving a coordination issue; the level of the decision makers – the highest decision-maker involved in a problem-resolution process; and the heterogeneity of participants –the number of trades related to an issue. Using 95 major coordination issues derived from 11,808 clashes in a case study, the correlations between the coordination time and the complexity factors were analyzed. The coordination time linearly increased as each factor increased. The number of participants had the highest correlation with the coordination time, followed by the level of decision makers and the heterogeneity of participants. The findings stress the significance of integration between BIM and lean approaches, such as Obeya (big room) and Shojinka (flexible manpower line), during BIM-based coordination to expedite decision-making processes and eventually to reduce the coordination time.

Keyword : BIM, coordination time, design management, delay, organizational management

How to Cite
Jang, S., & Lee, G. (2018). Impact of organizational factors on delays in BIM-based coordination from a decision-making view: a case study. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 24(1), 19-30.
Published in Issue
Mar 5, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AIA. 2011. IPD case studies. AIA Minnesota, and School of Architecture University of Minnesota, Washington D.C.

AIA, 2012. IPD case studies. AIA Minnesota, and School of Architecture University of Minnesota, Washington D.C.

Al Hattab, M.; Hamzeh, F. 2015. Using social network theory and simulation to compare traditional versus BIM–lean practice for design error management, Automation in Construction 52: 59–69.

Astley, W. G.; Axelsson, R.; Butler, R. J.; Hickson, D. J.; Wilson, D. C. 1982. Complexity and cleavage: Dual explanations of strategic decision-making [I], Journal of Management Studies 19: 357–375.

BCA. 2013. Singapore BIM guide version 2.0.

Brunsson, N. 2007. The consequences of decision-making. OUP Oxford.

Carlopio, J.; Andrewartha, G.; Whetten, D.; Cameron, K. 2012. Develop management skills. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Cohen, J. 2013. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Taylor & Francis.

Collins, W.; Parrish, K. 2014. The need for integrated project delivery in the public sector, in Construction Research Congress 2014. American Society of Civil Engineers, 719–728.

Dave, B.; Koskela, L. 2009. Collaborative knowledge management – A construction case study, Automation in Construction 18: 894–902.

Dave, B.; Koskela, L.; Kiviniemi, A.; Owen, R.; Tzortzopoulos, P. 2013. Implementing lean in construction, CIRIA, C725. London: CIRIA.

Dossick, C. S.; Neff, G. 2010. Organizational divisions in BIM-enabled commercial construction, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 136: 459–467.

EAB. 2017. The optimal number of people to invite to your meeting. Education Advisory Board [online], [cited 4 Dec 2017]. Available from Internet:

Eastman, C. M.; Teicholz, P.; Sacks, R.; Liston, K. 2008. BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors. Wiley.

Fast-Berglund, Å.; Harlin, U.; Åkerman, M. 2016. Digitalisation of meetings – from white-boards to smart-boards, Procedia CIRP 41: 1125–1130.

Fischer, M.; Stone, M.; Liston, K.; Kunz, J.; Singhal, V. 2002. Multi-stakeholder collaboration: The CIFE iRoom, in Proceedings of CIB W78 Conference, 6–13.

Forbes, L. H.; Ahmed, S. M. 2010. Modern construction: Lean project delivery and integrated practices. CRC Press.

Kenny, G.; Downey, L. 1987. Power, politics, and process of decision making, Journal of Management in Engineering 3: 297–302.

Kenny, G. K.; Wilson, D. C. 1984. The interdepartmental influence of managers: Individual and sub-unit perspectives, Journal of Management Studies 21: 409–425.

Khanzode, A. 2011. An integrated virtual design and construction and lean (IVL) method for the coordination of mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) systems. CIFE Technical Report #TR187. Stanford University.

Khanzode, A.; Martin, F.; Dean, R.; Glenn, B. 2006. A guide to applying the principles of virtual design & construction (VDC) to the lean project delivery process. CIFE Working Paper. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Korea Estimation Standard. 2015. Korea labor estimation standard. Degunsa.

Korman, T. M.; Tatum, C. B. 2006. Prototype tool for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing coordination, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 20: 38–48.

Korman, T. M.; Simonian, L.; Speidel, E. 2008. Using building information modeling to improve the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing coordination process for buildings, in Architectural Engineering Conference (AEI) 2008, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Koskela, L. 1992. Application of the new production philosophy to construction. CIFE Technical Report #72. Stanford University.

Kuo, C.-H.; Tsai, M.-H.; Kang, S.-C. 2011. A framework of information visualization for multi-system construction, Automation in Construction 20: 247–262.

Lee, G.; Kim, J. W. 2014. Parallel vs. sequential cascading MEP coordination strategies: A pharmaceutical building case study, Automation in Construction 43: 170–179.

Liker, J.; Meier, D. 2005. The Toyota way fieldbook. McGraw-Hill Education.

Lin, Y.-C. 2014. Construction 3D BIM-based knowledge management system: a case study, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 20(2): 186–200.

Liston, K.; Fischer, M.; Winograd, T. 2001. Focused sharing of information for multidisciplinary decision making by project teams, ITcon 6: 69–82.

Ma, C.; Lo, X.; Meng, Y. 2014. Study on the application of BIM technology in construction projects under IPD mode, in 2014 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management, 229–236.

McCall, M. W.; Kaplan, R. E. 1985. Whatever it takes: Decision makers at work. Prentice Hall.

Mintzberg, H.; Raisinghani, D.; Théorêt, A. 1976. The structure of “unstructured” decision processes, Administrative Science Quarterly 21: 246–275.

Monden, Y. 2012. Toyota production system: An integrated approach to just-in-time. Springer US.

Nutt, P. C.; Wilson, D. C. 2010. Handbook of decision making. Wiley.

Ohno, T. 1988. Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production. Taylor & Francis.

Park, J. H.; Lee, G. 2017. Design coordination strategies in a 2D and BIM mixed-project environment: social dynamics and productivity, Building Research & Information 45(6): 631–648.

Pekericli, M.; Akinci, B.; Karaesmen, I. 2003. Modeling information dependencies in construction project network organizations, in Fourth Joint International Symposium on Information Technology in Civil Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1–13.

Reizgevicius, M.; Ustinovichius, L.; Simanaviciene, R.; Rasiulis, R.; Peliksa, M. 2014. The evaluation and justification of the effectiveness of 4D CAD using multi-criteria analysis, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 20(6): 884–892.

Riley, D.; Varadan, P.; James, J.; Thomas, H. 2005. Benefit-cost metrics for design coordination of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems in multistory buildings, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 131: 877–889.

Shapira, Z. 2002. Organizational decision making. Cambridge University Press.

Simonian, L. G.; Korman, T. M. 2011. Building information modeling for electrical contractors: Current practice and recommendations, in Architectural Engineering Conference (AEI) 2011, 456–463.

Tabesh, A. R.; Staub-French, S. 2005. Case study of constructability reasoning in MEP coordination, in Construction Research Congress 2005, ASCE, San Diego, California, 119–119.

Wang, L.; Leite, F. 2015. Process knowledge capture in BIM-based mechanical, electrical, and plumbing design coordination meetings, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 30(2): 04015017.

Wang, P.-S.; Yang, T.; Chang, M.-C. 2017. Effective layout designs for the Shojinka control problem for a TFT-LCD module assembly line, Journal of Manufacturing Systems 44: 255–269.

Yang, J.; Wei, P. 2010. Causes of delay in the planning and design phases for construction projects, Journal of Architectural Engineering 16: 80–83.

Zaleznik, A. 1970. Power and politics in organizational life. Harvard Business Review.