Progress in urban greenery mitigation science – assessment methodologies advanced technologies and impact on cities


Urban greenery is a natural solution to cool cities and provide comfort, clean air and significant social, health and economic benefits. This paper aims to present the latest progress on the field of greenery urban mitigation techniques including aspects related to the theoretical and experimental assessment of the greenery cooling potential, the impact on urban vegetation on energy, health and comfort and the acquired knowledge on the best integration of the various types of greenery in the urban frame. Also to present the recent knowledge on the impact of climate change on the cooling performance of urban vegetation and investigate and analyse possible technological solutions to face the impact of high ambient temperatures.

Keyword : urban heat island, climate change, cooling cities, urban greenery, mitigation and adaptation, trees and forests, green roofs, vertical greening

How to Cite
Santamouris, M., Ban-Weiss, G., Osmond, P., Paolini, R., Synnefa, A., Cartalis, C., Muscio, A., Zinzi, M., Morakinyo, T., Ng, E., Tan, Z., Takebayashi, H., Sailor, D., Crank, P., Taha, H., Pisello, A., Rossi, F., Zhang, J., & Kolokotsa, D. (2018). Progress in urban greenery mitigation science – assessment methodologies advanced technologies and impact on cities. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 24(8), 638-671.
Published in Issue
Nov 27, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Akbari, H.; Cartalis, C.; Kolokotsa, D.; Muscio, A.; Pisello, A. L.; Rossi, F.; Santamouris, M.; Synnefa, A.; Wong, N. H.; Zinzi, M. 2016. Local climate change and urban heat island mitigation techniques – The state of the art, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 22(1): 1–16.

Akbari, H.; Davis, S.; Dorsano, S.; Huang, J.; Winnett, S. 1992. Cooling our communities. A guidebook on tree planting and light-colored surfacing. US Environmental Protection Agency, USA.

Akbari, H.; Huang, J.; Martien, P.; Rainer, L.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H. 1989. Saving energy and reducing atmospheric pollution by controlling summer heat islands, in K. Garbesi, H. Akbari, P. Martien (Eds.). Controlling summer heat islands. Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S. 2004. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada, Energy 29(2): 191–210.

Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S. 2005. Calculating energy-saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies, Energy Policy 33(6): 721–756.

Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Taha, H. 2001. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas, Solar Energy 70(3): 295–310.

Alcamo, J. 2003. Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Washington: Island Press.

Alcazar, S. S.; Olivieri, F.; Neila, J. 2015. Green roofs: Experimental and analytical study of its potential for urban microclimate regulation in Mediterranean-continental climates, Urban Climate 17: 304–317.

Alexandri, E.; Jones, P. 2008. Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates, Building and Environment 43(4): 480–493.

Allen, C. D.; Macalady, A. K.; Chenchouni, H.; Bachelet, D.; McDowell, N.; Vennetier, M.; Kitzbergerg, T.; Rigling, A.; Breshears, D. D.; (Ted) Hogg, E. H.; Gonzalez, P.; Fensham, R.; Zhang, Z.; Castro, J.; Demidova, N.; Li, J.-H.; Allard, G.; Running, S. W.; Semerci, A.; Cobb, N. 2010. A global overview of drought and heat induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests, Forest Ecology and Management 259: 660–684.

Ameen, R. F. M.; Mourshed, M.; Li, H. 2015. A critical review of environmental assessment tools for sustainable urban design, Environmental Impact Assessment Review 55: 110–125.

Ameye, M.; Wertin, T. M.; Bauweraerts, I.; McGuire, M. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Steppe, K. 2012. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres, The New Phytologist 196: 448–461.

Anderegg, W. R. L.; Berry, J. A.; Field, C. B. 2012. Linking definitions, mechanisms, and modeling of drought-induced tree death, Trends in Plant Science 17: 693–700.

Arbor Day Foundation. 2016. The right tree for the right place. Tree City USA.

ASTM C1371-15 Standard test method for determination of emittance of materials near room temperature using portable emissometers. ASTM International, 2015.

ASTM C1549-16 Standard test method for determination of solar reflectance near ambient temperature using a portable solar reflectometer. ASTM International, 2016.

ASTM E1918-16 Standard test method for measuring solar reflectance of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces in the field. ASTM International, 2016.

ASTM E903-12 Standard test method for solar absorptance, reflectance, and transmittance of materials using integrating spheres. ASTM International, 2012.

Ayanu, Y. Z.; Conrad, C.; Nauss, M.; Wegmann, M.; Koellner, T. 2012. Quantifying and mapping ecosystem services supplies and demands: a review of remote sensing applications, Environmental Science Technology 46: 8529–8541.

Bacci, L.; Morabito, M.; Raschi, A.; Ugolini, F. 2003. Thermohygrometric conditions of some urban parks of Florence (Italy) and their effect on human wellbeing, in Proceedings of the “Fifth International Conference on Urban Climate”, 1–5 September 2003, Lodz, Poland.

Ball, J.; Woodrow, I.; Berry, J. A. 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions, in Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Proceedings of the VIIth International Congress on Photosynthesis Providence, 10–15 August 1987, Rhode Island, USA, 221–224.

Ban, Y.; Hu, H.; Rangel, I. 2010. Fusion of QuickBird MS and RADARSAT SAR data for urban land-cover mapping: object-based and knowledge based approach, International Journal of Remote Sensing 31: 1391–1410.

Bartesaghi Koc, C.; Osmond, P.; Peters, A. 2017. Towards a comprehensive green infrastructure typology: a systematic review of approaches, methods and typologies, Urban Ecosystems 20(1): 15–35.

Barton, J.; Pretty, J. 2010. What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health – A multi-study analysis, Environmental Science & Technology 44: 3947–3955.

Baumgardner, D.; Varela, S.; Escobedo, F. J.; Chacalo, A.; Ochoa, C. 2012. The role of a peri-urban forest on air quality improvement in the Mexico City megalópolis, Environmental Pollution 163: 174–183.

Bauweraerts, I.; Wertin, T. M.; Ameye, M.; McGuire, M. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Steppe, K. 2013. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings, Global Change Biology 19: 517–528.

Beatty, R. A. 1989. Planting guidelines for heat island mitigation and energy conservation, in Controlling Summer Heat Islands, Proceedings of the Workshop on Saving Energy and Reducing Atmospheric Pollution by Controlling Summer Heat Islands, 23–24 February, Berkeley, California, USA.

Belussi, L.; Barozzi, B. 2015. Mitigation measures to contain the environmental impact of urban areas: a bibliographic review moving from the life cycle approach, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187(12): 745.

Benjamin, M. T.; Winer, A. M. 1998. Estimating the ozone-forming potential of urban trees and shrubs, Atmospheric Environment 32: 53–68.

Berardi, U. 2013. Sustainability assessment of urban communities through rating systems, Environment, Development and Sustainability 15(6): 1573–1591.

Berardi, U. 2016. The outdoor microclimate benefits and energy saving resulting from green roofs retrofits, Energy and Buildings 121: 217–229.

Bernard, J.; Rodler, A.; Morille, B.; Zhang, X. 2018. How to design a park and its surrounding urban morphology to optimize the spreading of cool air, Climate 60: 10.

Berndtsson, J. C. 2010. Green roof performance towards management of runoff water quantity and quality: A review, Ecological Engineering 36(4): 351–360.

Besir, A. B.; Cuce, E. 2018. Green roofs and facades: A comprehensive review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 82(Part 1): 915–939.

Bevilacqua, P.; Coma, J.; Pérez, G.; Chocarro, C.; Juárez, A.; Solé, C.; Solé, C.; De Simone, M.; Cabeza, L. F. 2015. Plant cover and floristic composition effect on thermal behaviour of extensive green roofs, Building and Environment 92: 305–316.

Bigras, F. J. 2000. Selection of white spruce families in the context of climate change: Heat tolerance, Tree Physiology 20(18): 1227–1234.

Bita, C. E.; Gerats, T. 2013. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops, Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 273.

Blanusa, T.; Vaz Monteiro, M.; Fantozzi, F.; Vysini, E.; Li, Y.; Cameron, R. W. F. 2013. Alternatives to Sedum on green roofs: Can broad leaf perennial plants offer better ‘cooling service’?, Building and Environment 59: 99–106.

Bork, E.; Su, J. 2007. Integrating LIDAR data and multispectral imagery for enhanced classification of rangeland vegetation: A meta-analysis, Remote Sensing of Environment 111: 11–24.

Bowler, D. E.; Buyung-Ali, L.; Knight, T. M.; Pullin, A. S. 2010. Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence, Landscape and Urban Planning 97(3): 147–155.

Brazel, A. P.; Gober, S. J.; Lee, S.; Grossman-Clarke, J.; Hedquist, Z. B.; Comparri, E. 2007. Determinants of changes in the regional urban heat island in metropolitan Phoenix between 1990 and 2004, Climate Research 33: 171–182.

Broadbent, A. M.; Coutts, A. M.; Tapper, N. J.; Demuzere, M. 2018. The cooling effect of irrigation on urban microclimate during heatwave conditions, Urban Climate 23: 309–329.

Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.; Di Sabatino, S.; Ruck, B. 2009. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons, Science of the Total Environment 407: 5247–5256.

Ca, V. T.; Asaeda, T.; Abu, E. M. 1998. Reductions in air conditioning energy caused by a nearby park, Energy and Buildings 29: 83–92.

Cairns, J. E.; Crossa, J.; Zaidi, P. H.; Grudloyma, P.; Sanchez, C.; Luis Araus, J.; Thaitad, S.; Makumbi, D.; Magorokosho, C.; Bänziger, M.; Menkir, A.; Hearne, S.; Atlin, G. N. 2013. Identification of drought, heat, and combined drought and heat tolerant donors in maize, Crop Science 53(4): 1335–1346.

Cao, C. T. N.; Farrell, C.; Kristiansen, P. E.; Rayner, J. P. 2014. Biochar makes green roof substrates lighter and improves water supply to plants, Ecological Engineering 71: 368–374.

Cao, Q.; Yu, D.; Georgescu, M.; Han, Z.; Wu, J. 2015. Impacts of land use and land cover change on regional climate: A case study in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China, Environmental Research Letters 10(12).

Cao, X.; Onishi, A.; Chena, J.; Imura, H. 2010. Quantifying the cool island intensity of urban parks using ASTER and IKONOS data, Landscape Urban Planning 96: 224–231.

Cartalis, C. 2017. Prerequisites for nature based solutions in cities, in European Forum on Nature Based Solutions, October 2017, Tallinn, Estonia.

Cartalis, C.; Santamouris, M.; Polydoros, A.; Nyktarakis, G.; Mavrakou, T. 2016. Assessing the interlinks between urbanization, the built environment and the thermal environment in view of smart and sustainable urban development: a demonstration application for Athens, International Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 1. Article ID 1:IJEES-107.

Castaldo, V. L.; Pisello, A. L.; Piselli, C.; Fabiani, C.; Cotana, F.; Santamouris, M. 2018. How outdoor microclimate mitigation affects building thermal-energy performance: A new design-stage method for energy saving in residential near-zero energy settlements in Italy, Renewable Energy 127: 920–935.

Chang, C. R.; Li, M. H.; Chang, S. D. 2007. A preliminary study on the local cool-island intensity of Taipei city parks, Landscape and Urban Planning 80(4): 386–395.

Chang, C.-R.; Li, M.-H. 2014. Effects of urban parks on the local urban thermal environment, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 13(4): 672–681.

Chen, C. F. 2013. Performance evaluation and development strategies for green roofs in Taiwan: A review, Ecological Engineering 52: 51–58.

Chen, F.; Kusaka, H.; Bornstein, R.; Ching, J.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Grossman-Clarke, S.; Loridan, T.; Manning, K. W.; Martilli, A.; Miao, S.; Sailor, D.; Salamanca, F. P.; Taha, H.; Tewari, M.; Wang, X.; Wyszogrodzki, A. A.; Zhang, C. 2011. The integrated WRF/urban modelling system: development, evaluation, and applications to urban environmental problems, International Journal of Climatology 31: 273–288.

Chen, X.; Su, Y.; Li, D.; Huang, G.; Chen, W.; Chen, S. 2012. Study on the cooling effects of urban parks on surrounding environments using Landsat TM data: a case study in Guangzhou, southern China, International Journal of Remote Sensing 33(18): 5889–5914.

Cheng, C. Y.; Cheung, K. K. S.; Chu, L. M. 2010. Thermal performance of a vegetated cladding system on facade walls, Building and Environment 45(8): 1779–1787.

Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Bonn, B.; Lauer, A.; Grote, R.; Tomiak, K.; Butler, T. M. 2017. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on air quality in Berlin during a heat wave, Environmental Science & Technology 51: 6120–6130.

Clark, J.; Kjelgren, R. 1990. Water as a limiting factor in the development of urban trees, Journal of Arboriculture 16(8): 203–208.

Cole, R. J. 1998. Emerging trends in building environmental assessment methods, Building Research & Information 26(1): 3–16.

Cole, R. J. 2005. Building environmental assessment methods: redefining intentions and roles, Building Research & Information 33(5): 455–467.

Coleman, R. F.; Drake, J. F.; McAtee, M. D.; Belsma, L. O. 2010. Anthropogenic moisture effects on WRF summertime surface temperature and mixing ratio forecast skills in Southern California, Weather and Forecasting 25(5): 1522–1535.

Colombo, S. J.; Timmer, V. R. 1992. Limits of tolerance to high temperatures causing direct and indirect damage to black spruce, Tree Physiology 11: 95–104.

Colombo, S.; Timmer, V.; Colclough, M.; Blumwald, E. 1995. Diurnal variation in heat tolerance and heat shock protein expression in black spruce (Piceamariana), Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25(3): 369–375.

Copernicus. 2018. Urban atlas [online]. Available from Internet:

Cowan, T.; Purich, A.; Perkins, S.; Pezza, A.; Boschat, G.; Sadler, K. 2014. More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the twenty-first century, Journal of Climate 27: 5851–5871.

Currie, B. A.; Bass, B. 2008. Estimates of air pollution mitigation with green plants and green roofs using the UFORE model, Urban Ecosystems 11: 409–422.

Curtis, E. M.; Leigh, A.; Rayburg, S. 2012. Relationships among leaf traits of Australian arid zone plants: alternative modes of thermal protection, Australian Journal of Botany 60: 471–483.

Dahanayake, K. C.; Chow, C. L.; Long Hou, G. 2017. Selection of suitable plant species for energy efficient Vertical Greenery Systems (VGS), Energy Procedia 142: 2473–2478.

de Abreu-Harbich, L. V.; Labaki, L. C.; Matzarakis, A. 2015. Effect of tree planting design and tree species on human thermal comfort in the tropics, Landscape and Urban Planning 138: 99–109.

de Dear, R.; Kim, J. 2016. Thermal comfort inside and outside buildings, in Y. Tamura, R. Yoshie (Eds.). Advanced environmental wind engineering. Springer, 89–99.

De Jesus, M. P.; Lourenço, J. M.; Arce, R. M.; Macias, M. 2017. Green façades and in situ measurements of outdoor building thermal behaviour, Building and Environment 119: 11–19.

Deak Sjöman, J. 2016. The hidden landscape: On fine-scale green structure and its role in regulating ecosystem services in the urban environment, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae 3.

Declet-Barreto, J.; Brazel, A. J.; Martin, C. A.; Chow, W. T. L.; Harlan, S. L. 2013. Creating the park cool island in an inner-city neighborhood: heat mitigation strategy for Phoenix, AZ, Urban Ecosystems 16(3): 617–635.

Dennis, M.; Barlow, D.; Cavan, G.; Cook, P.; Gilchrist, A.; Handley, J.; James, P.; Thompson, J.; Tzoulas, K.; Wheater, P.; Lindley, S. 2018. Mapping urban green infrastructure: A novel landscape-based approach to incorporating land use and land cover in the mapping of human-dominated systems, Land 7: 17–25.

Dimoudi, A.; Nikolopoulou, M. 2003. Vegetation in the urban environment: microclimatic analysis and benefits, Energy and Buildings 35: 69–76.

Ding, G. K. 2008. Sustainable construction – The role of environmental assessment tools, Journal of Environmental Management 86(3): 451–464.

Doick, K. J.; Peace, A.; Hutchings, T. R. 2014. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London’s nocturnal urban heat island, Science of the Total Environment 493: 662–671.

Doick, K.; Hutchings, T. 2013. Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure. Forestry Commission, UK.

Dooling, S. 2009. Ecological gentrification: A Research agenda exploring justice in the city, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33: 621–639.

Drake, J. E.; Tjoelker, M. G.; Vårhammar, A.; Medlyn, B. E.; Reich, P. B.; Leigh, A.; Pfautsch, S.; Blackman, C. J.; López, R.; Aspinwall, M. J.; Crous, K. Y.; Duursma, R. A.; Kumarathunge, D.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Jiang, M.; Nicotra, A. B.; Tissue, D. T.; Choat, B.; Atkin, O. K.; Barton, C. V. M. 2018. Trees tolerate an extreme heatwave via sustained transpirational cooling and increased leaf thermal tolerance, Global Change Biology 24(6): 2390–2402.

Du, H.; Cai, W.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Cai, Y. 2017. Quantifying the cool island effects of urban green spaces using remote sensing data, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 27: 24–31.

Ehleringer, J. R.; Mooney, H. A. 1978. Leaf hairs: Effects on physiological activity and adaptive value to a desert shrub, Oecologia 37: 183–200.

Eisenman, T. S. 2013. Frederick Law Olmsted, green infrastructure, and the evolving city, Journal of Planning History 12: 287–311.

Ellis, K. N.; Hathaway, L.; Mason, R.; Howe, D. A.; Epps, T. H.; Brown, V. M. 2017. Summer temperature variability across four urban neighborhoods in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 127(3–4): 701–710.

EN 15976:2011 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Determination of emissivity. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), 2011.

Erell, E.; Pearlmutter, D.; Williamson, T. 2012. Urban microclimate: designing the spaces between buildings. Routledge.

Essa, W.; Verbeiren, B.; van der Kwast, J.; Batelaan, O. 2013. Downscaling of thermal images over urban areas using the land surface temperature – Impervious percentage relationship, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation 23: 95–108.

Essa, W.; Verbeiren, B.; van der Kwast, J.; Batelaan, O. 2017. Improved DisTrad for downscaling thermal MODIS imagery over urban areas, Remote Sensing 8: 1243–1250.

Feldhake, C. M. 2001. Microclimate of a natural pasture under planted Robinia pseudoacacia in central Appalachia, West Virginia, Agroforestry Systems 53(3): 297–303.

FLL. 2008. Guidelines for the planning, construction and maintenance of green roofing. Bonn: Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau e.V. (FLL).

Forster, M.; Englefield, A. 2018. Can soils assist grapevines in coping with heatwaves?, Soil Science Australia 186.

Founta, D.; Santamouris, M. 2017. Synergies between Urban Heat Island and Heat Waves in Athens (Greece), during an extremely hot summer, Scientific Reports – Nature 7. Article number 10973.

Frankenstein, S.; Koenig, G. 2004. FASST vegetation models. Technical Report TR-04-25U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (ERDC/CRREL).

Frumkin, H. 2003. Healthy places: Exploring the evidence, American Journal of Public Health 93: 1451–1456.

Gehrels, H.; van der Meulen, S.; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, P.; Brolsma, R.; van Dinther, D.; Geerling, G.; Goossens, M.; Jacobs, C.; Kok, S. 2016. Designing green and blue infrastructure to support healthy urban living. TO2 Federatie.

Georgescu, M. 2015. Challenges associated with adaptation to future expansion, Journal of Climate 31: 2544–2563.

Georgescu, M.; Moustaoui, M.; Mahalov, A.; Dudhia, J. 2011. An alternative explanation of the semiarid urban area “oasis effect”, Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 116(24): 1–13.

Ghirardo, A.; Xie, J.; Zheng, X.; Wang, Y.; Grote, R.; Block, K.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hallquist, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Schnitzler, J.-P. 2016. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16: 2901–2920.

Ghobadi, A.; Khosravi, M.; Tavousi, T. 2018. Surveying of heat waves impact on the urban heat islands: Case study, the Karaj City in Iran, Urban Climate 24: 600–615.

Gill, S. E.; Handley, J. F.; Ennos, A. R.; Pauleit, S. 2007. Adapting cities for climate change: The role of the green infrastructure, Built Environment 33(1): 115–133.

GLTMS. 2015. Appendix 8 – Right tree right place quick reference guide. Development Bureau, HKSAR.

Grimmond, C. S. B.; Blackett, M.; Best, M. J.; Baik, J.-J.; Belcher, S. E.; Beringer, J.; Bohnenstengel, S. I.; Calmet, I.; Chen, F.; Coutts, A.; Dandou, A.; Fortuniak, K.; Gouvea, M. L.; Hamdi, R.; Hendry, M.; Kanda, M.; Kawai, T.; Kawamoto, Y.; Kondo, H.; Krayenhoff, E. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Loridan, T., Martilli, A.; Masson, V.; Miao, S.; Oleson, K.; Ooka, R.; Pigeon, G.; Porson, A.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Salamanca, F.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Tombrou, M.; Voogt, J. A.; Young, D. T.; Zhang, N. 2011. Initial results from Phase 2 of the international urban energy balance model comparison, International Journal of Climatology 31(2): 244–272.

Grimmond, C. S. B.; Blackett, M.; Best, M. J.; Barlow, J.; Baik, J.-J.; Belcher, S. E.; Bohnenstengel, S. I.; Calmet, I.; Chen, F.; Dandou, A.; Fortuniak, K.; Gouvea, M. L.; Hamdi, R.; Hendry, M.; Kawai, T.; Kawamoto, Y.; Kondo, H.; Krayenhoff, E. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Loridan, T.; Martilli, A.; Masson, V.; Miao, S.; Oleson, K.; Pigeon, G.; Porson, A.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Salamanca, F.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Steeneveld, G.-J.; Tombrou, M.; Voogt, J.; Young, D.; Zhang, N. 2010. The international urban energy balance models comparison project: First results from phase 1, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 49: 1268–1292.

Grimmond, C. S. B.; Souch, C.; Hubble, M. D. 1996. Influence of tree cover on summertime surface energy balance fluxes, San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles, Climate Research 6(1): 45–57.

Gromke, C. 2011. A vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel tests and its application in pollutant dispersion studies, Environmental Pollution 159: 2094–2099.

Gromke, C.; Blocken, B. 2014. Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood scale. Part I: Quality assurance studies and turbulent Schmidt number analysis for RANS CFD simulations, Environmental Pollution 196: 214–223.

Grover, A.; Singh, R. B. 2015. Analysis of Urban Heat Island (UHI) in relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): A comparative study of Delhi and Mumbai, Environments 2: 125–138.

Guenther, A. B.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Harley, P. C.; Monson, R. K.; Fall, R. 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability – model evaluations and sensitivity analyses, Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 12609–12617.

Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C. 2004. User’s guide to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) [online], [cited 01 July 2018]. Available from Internet:

Guha, A.; Han, J.; Cummings, C.; McLennan, D. A.; Warren, J. M. 2018. Differential ecophysiological responses and resilience to heat wave events in four co-occurring temperate tree species, Environmental Research Letters 13(6).

Gülten, A.; Aksoy, U. T.; Öztop, H. F. 2016. Influence of trees on heat island potential in an urban canyon, Sustainable Cities and Society 26: 407–418.

Gulyás, A.; Unger, J.; Matzarakis, A. 2006. Assessment of the microclimatic and human comfort conditions in a complex urban environment: Modelling and measurements, Building and Environment 41: 1713–1722.

Haapio, A.; Viitaniemi, P. 2008. A critical review of building environmental assessment tools, Environmental Impact Assessment Review 28(7): 469–482.

Haas, J.; Ban, Y. 2017. Sentinel-1A SAR and sentinel-2A MSI data fusion for urban ecosystem mapping, Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment 8: 41–53.

Haas, J.; Ban, Y. 2018. Urban land cover and ecosystem service changes based on Sentinel-2A MSI and Landsat TM Data, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 11: 485–497.

Haldimann, P.; Galle, A.; Feller, U. 2008. Impact of an exceptionally hot dry summer on photosynthetic traits in oak (Quercus pubescens) leaves, Tree Physiology 28: 785–795.

Hamada, S.; Ohta, T. 2010. Seasonal variations in the cooling effect of urban green areas on surrounding urban areas, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 9: 15–24.

Hamedani, A. Z.; Huber, F. 2012. A comparative study of DGNB, LEED and BREEAM certificate systems in urban sustainability, WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment 155: 1121–132.

Harfouche, A.; Meilan, R.; Altman, A. 2011. Tree genetic engineering and applications to sustainable forestry and biomass production, Trends in Biotechnology 29(1): 9–17.

Harrison, S. P.; Morfopoulos, C.; Dani, K. G. S.; Prentice, I. C.; Arneth, A.; Atwell, B. J.; Barkley, M. P.; Leishman, M. R.; Loreto, F.; Medlyn, B. E.; Niinemets, Ü.; Possell, M.; Peñuelas, J.; Wright, I. J. 2013. Volatile isoprenoid emissions from plastid to planet, New Phytologist 197: 49–57.

Heisler, G. M. 1990. Mean wind speed below building height in residential neighborhoods with different tree densities, ASHRAE Transactions 96(1): 1389–1396.

Heisler, G. M.; Dewalle, D. R. 1988. 2. Effects of windbreak structure on wind flow, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 22–23: 41–69.

Hoelscher, M.; Nehls, T.; Jänicke, B.; Wessolek, G. 2016. Quantifying cooling effects of facade greening: Shading, transpiration and insulation, Energy and Buildings 114: 283–290.

Honjo, T.; Takakura, T. 1990–1991. Simulation of thermal effects of urban green areas on their surrounding areas, Energy and Buildings 15(3–4): 443–446.

Howard, E. 1898. Garden cities of tomorrow. London: General Books LLC.

Howe, D. A.; Hathaway, J. M.; Ellis, K. N.; Mason, L. R. 2017. Spatial and temporal variability of air temperature across urban neighborhoods with varying amounts of tree canopy, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 27: 109–116.

Huang, J.; Davis, S.; Akbari, H. 1990. A guidebook for the control of summer heat islands. Berkeley, California: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

Hui, S. C. 2010. Development of technical guidelines for green roof systems in Hong Kong, in Proceedings of the Joint Symposium 2010 on Low Carbon High Performance Buildings.

Huo, X.; Ann, T. W.; Wu, Z. 2018. An empirical study of the variables affecting site planning and design in green buildings, Journal of Cleaner Production 175: 314–323.

Jackson, L. E. 2003. The relationship of urban design to human health and condition, Landscape and Urban Planning 64(4): 191–200.

Jänicke, B.; Meier, F.; Hoelscher, M.; Scherer, D. 2015. Evaluating the effects of façade greening on human bioclimate in a complex urban environment, Advances in Meteorology. Article ID 747259.

Jayasooriya, V.; Ng, A.; Muthukumaran, S.; Perera, B. 2017. Green infrastructure practices for improvement of urban air quality, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 21: 34–47.

Jennings, V.; Larson, L.; Yun, J. 2016. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: Cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health, Environmental Research and Public Health 13: 196.

Jim, C. 2002. Planning strategies to overcome constraints on greenspace provision in urban Hong Kong, Town Planning Review 73(2): 127–152.

Jim, C. Y. 2013. Sustainable urban greening strategies for compact cities in developing and developed economies, Urban Ecosystems 16: 741–761.

Jonsson, P. 2004. Vegetation as an urban climate control in the subtropical city of Gaborone, Botswana, International Journal of Climatology 24: 1307–1322.

Kala, J.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Medlyn, B. E.; Wang, Y.-P.; Lorenz, R.; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S. E. 2016. Impact of the representation of stomatal conductance on model projections of heatwave intensity, Scientific Reports – Nature 6: 23418.

Kalani, K. W. D.; Dahanayake, C.; Chow, C. L. 2016. Studying the potential of energy saving through vertical greenery systems: Using EnergyPlus simulation program, Energy and Buildings 138: 47–59.

Kaloustian, N.; Aouad, D.; Battista, G.; Zinzi, M. 2018. Leftover spaces for the mitigation of urban overheating in municipal Beirut, Climate 6(3): 68.

Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S. 1989. The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kato, T.; Yamada, T.; Hino, M. 2006. Spatial structure of air temperature and humidity in urban park forest and its surrounding, Journal of the Institute of Science and Engineering. Chuo University 12: 63–71.

Kent, C. W.; Grimmond, S.; Gatey, D. 2017a. Aerodynamic roughness parameters in cities: Inclusion of vegetation, Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics 169: 168–176.

Kent, C. W.; Lee, K.; Ward, H. C.; Hong, J.-W.; Hong, J.; Gatey, D.; Grimmond, S. 2017b. Aerodynamic roughness variation with vegetation: analysis in a suburban neighbourhood and a city park, Urban Ecosystems 21: 227–243.

Kikegawa, Y.; Genchi, Y.; Kondo, H.; Hanaki, K. 2006. Impacts of city-block-scale countermeasures against urban heat-island phenomena upon a building’s energy-consumption for air-conditioning, Applied Energy 83(6): 649–668.

Kim, J. H.; Gu, D.; Sohn, W.; Kil, S. H.; Kim, H.; Lee, D. K. 2016. Neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperature. An empirical study on single family residential areas in Austin, Texas, International Journal for Environmental Research in Public Health 13: 880.

Kolb, P. F.; Robberecht, R. 1996. High temperature and drought stress effects on survival of Pinus ponderosa seedlings, Tree Physiology 16: 665–672.

Kong, F.; Sun, C.; Liu, F.; Yin, H.; Yingxia Pu, F. J.; Cavan, G.; Skelhorn, C.; Middel, A.; Dronova, I. 2016. Energy saving potential of fragmented green spaces due to their temperature regulating ecosystem services in the summer, Applied Energy 183: 1428–1440.

Kong, L.; Lau, K. K.-L.; Yuan, C.; Chen, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ren, C.; Ng, E. 2017. Regulation of outdoor thermal comfort by trees in Hong Kong, Sustainable Cities and Society 31: 12–25.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H. 2000. Energy savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBNL-42890, Berkeley, CA.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H. 2002. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City). Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBNL-94720, Berkeley, CA.

Koppenaal, R. S.; Colombo, S. J.; Blumwald, E. 1991. Acquired thermotolerance of jack pine, white spruce and black spruce seedlings, Tree Physiology 8(1): 83–91.

Kosaka, E.; Iida, A.; Vanos, J.; Middel, A.; Yokohari, M.; Brown, R. 2018. Microclimate variation and estimated heat stress of runners in the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Marathon, Atmosphere 9: 192.

Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, C. S. B. 2014. Energy exchange in a dense urban environment – Part I: Temporal variability of long-term observations in central London, Urban Climate 10: 261–280.

Krayenhoff, E. S.; Santiago, J.-L.; Martilli, A.; Christen, A.; Oke, T. R. 2015. Parametrization of drag and turbulence for urban neighbourhoods with trees, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 156: 157–189.

Kuo, F. E.; Sullivan, W. C. 2001. Aggression and violence in the inner city, Environment and Behavior 33: 543–571.

Kupper, P.; Sõber, J.; Sellin, A.; Lõhmus, K.; Tullus, A.; Räim, O.; Lubenets, K.; Tulva, I.; Uri, V.; Zobel, M.; Kull, O.; Sõber, A. 2011. An experimental facility for free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) can alter water flux through deciduous tree canopy, Environmental and Experimental Botany 72: 432–438.

Kuras, E. R.; Richardson, M. B.; Calkins, M. M.; Ebi, K. L.; Hess, J. J.; Kintziger, K. W.; Jagger, M. A.; Middel, A.; Scott, A. A.; Spector, J. T.; Uejio, C. K.; Vanos, J. K.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Gohlke, J. M.; Hondula, D. M. 2017. Opportunities and challenges for personal heat exposure research, Environmental Health Perspectives 125(8): 085001.

Kustas, W.; Norman, J.; Anderson, M.; French, A. 2003. Estimating subpixel surface temperatures and energy fluxes from the vegetation index – Radiometric temperature relationship, Remote Sensing of Environment 85: 429–440.

Kyriakodis, G.-E.; Santamouris, M. 2017. Using reflective pavements to mitigate urban heat island in warm climates – Results from a large scale urban mitigation project, Urban Climate 24: 326–339.

La Roche, P.; Berardi, U. 2014. Comfort and energy savings with active green roofs, Energy and Buildings 82: 492–504.

Landsberg, H. 1970. Climatic consequences of urbanization, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 60(3): 82–87.

Lang, S.; Blaschke, T.; Kothencz, G.; Holbling, D. 2018. Urban green mapping and valuation, in Q. Weng, D. Quattrochi, P. Gamba (Eds.). Urban remote sensing. Taylor and Francis Series in Satellite Remote Sensing. Taylor and Francis, 338.

Leuning, R. 1995. A critical-appraisal of a combined stomatal-photosynthesis model for C-3 plants, Plant Cell and Environment 18: 339–355.

Leuzinger, S.; Vogt, R.; Körner, C. 2010. Tree surface temperature in an urban environment, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150(1): 56–62.

Li, W.; Radke, J.; Liu, D.; Gong, P. 2012. Measuring detailed urban vegetation with multisource high-resolution remote sensing imagery for environmental design and planning, Environmental Planning B: Planning and Design 39: 568–585.

Li, X.; de Foy, B. 2012. Spatial pattern of greenspace affects land surface temperature: evidence from the heavily urbanized Beijing metropolitan area, China, Landscape Ecology 27: 887–898.

Lin, Y.-S.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R. A.; Prentice, I. C.; Wang, H.; Baig, S.; Eamus, D.; de Dios, V. R.; Mitchell, P.; Ellsworth, D. S.; de Beeck, M. O.; Wallin, G.; Uddling, J.; Tarvainen, L.; Linderson, M.-L.; Cernusak, L. A.; Nippert, J. B.; Ocheltree, T. W.; Tissue, D. T.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Rogers, A.; Warren, J. M.; De Angelis, P.; Hikosaka, K.; Han, Q.; Onoda, Y.; Gimeno, T. E.; Barton, C. V. M.; Bennie, J.; Bonal, D.; Bosc, A.; Löw, M.; Macinins-Ng, C.; Rey, A.; Rowland, L.; Setterfield, S. A.; Tausz-Posch, S.; Zaragoza-Castells, J.; Broadmeadow, M. S. J.; Drake, J. E.; Freeman, M.; Ghannoum, O.; Hutley, L. B.; Kelly, J. W.; Kikuzawa, K.; Kolari, P.; Koyama, K.; Limousin, J. M.; Meir, P.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Salinas, N.; Sun, W.; Wingate, L. 2015. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world, Nature Climate Change 5: 459–464.

Lontorfos, V.; Efthymiou, C.; Santamouris, M. 2018. On the time varying mitigation performance of reflective geoengineering technologies in cities, Renewable Energy 115: 926–930.

Lorenz, R.; Davin, E. L.; Lawrence, D. M.; Stöckli, R.; Seneviratne, S. I. 2013. How important is vegetation phenology for European climate and heat waves?, Journal of Climate 26: 10077–10100.

Lu, J.; Li, C.-D.; Yang, Y.-C.; Zhang, X.-H.; Jin, M. 2012. Quantitative evaluation of urban park cool island factors in mountain city, Journal of Central South University of Technology 19(6): 1657–1662.

Maes, J.; Barbosa, A.; Baranzelli, C.; Zulian, G.; Silva, F. B.; Vandecasteele, I.; Hiederer, R.; Liquete, C.; Paracchini, M. L.; Mubareka, S.; Jacobs-Crisioni, C.; Castillo, C. P.; Lavalle, C. 2014. More green infrastructure is required to maintain ecosystem services under current trends in land use change in Europe, Landscape Ecology 30: 517–534.

Manickathan, L.; Defraeye, T.; Allegrini, J.; Derome, D.; Carmeliet, J. 2018. Parametric study of the influence of environmental factors and tree properties on the transpirative cooling effect of trees, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 248: 259–274.

Manso, M.; Castro-Gomes, J.; Paulo, B.; Bentes, I.; Teixeira, C. 2018. Life cycle analysis of a new modular greening system, Science of the Total Environment 627: 1146–1153.

Mao, Y.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P. 2015. Is climate change implicated in the 2013-2014 California drought? A hydrologic perspective, Geophysical Research Letters 42(8): 2805–2813.

Marando, F.; Slavatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Manes, F. 2016. Removal of PM10 by forests as nature-based solution for air quality improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Forests 7: 150.

March, D.; Hatch, S. L.; Morgan, C.; Kirkbride, J. B.; Bresnahan, M.; Fearon, P.; Susser, E. 2008. Psychosis and place, Epidemiologic Reviews 30: 84–100.

Mathieu, R.; Freeman, C.; Aryal, J. 2007. Mapping private gardens in urban areas using object oriented techniques and very high resolution satellite imagery, Landscape Urban Planning 81: 179–192.

Mavrakou, T.; Polydoros, A.; Cartalis, C.; Santamouris, M. 2018. Recognition of thermal hot and cold spots in urban areas in support of mitigation plans to counteract overheating: Application for Athens, Climate 6(1): 16.

Mbow, C.; Smith, P.; Skole, D.; Duguma, L.; Bustamante, M. 2014. Achieving mitigation and adaptation to climate change through sustainable agroforestry practices in Africa, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6: 8–14.

McPherson, E. G.; Simpson, J. R.; Peper, P. J.; Scott, K. I.; Xiao, Q. 2000. Tree guidelines for Coastal Southern California communities. Western Center for Urban Forest Research and Education USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.

McPherson, E. G.; Xiao, Q.; van Doorn, N. S.; Johnson, N.; Albers, S.; Peper, P. J. 2018. Shade factors for 149 taxa of in-leaf urban trees in the USA, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 31: 204–211.

Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R. A.; Eamus, D.; Ellsworth, D. S.; Prentice, I. C.; Barton, C. V. M.; Crous, K. Y.; De Angelis, P.; Freeman, M.; Wingate, L. 2011. Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance, Global Change Biology 17(6): 2134–2144.

Meier, F.; Scherer, D. 2012. Spatial and temporal variability of urban tree canopy temperature during summer 2010 in Berlin, Germany, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 110(3): 373–384.

Merino, I.; Contreras, A.; Jing, Z.-P.; Gallardo, F.; Canovas, F. M.; Gomez, L. 2014. Plantation forestry under global warming: Hybrid poplars with improved thermotolerance provide new insights on the in vivo function of small heat shock protein chaperones, Plant Physiology 164(2): 978–991.

Merlin, O.; Bitar, A.; Walker, P.; Kerr, Y. 2010. An improved algorithm for disaggregating microwave-derived soil moisture based on red, near-infrared and thermal-infrared data, Remote Sensing of Environment 114: 2305–2316.

Mirzaei, P. A.; Haghighat, F. 2010. Approaches to study Urban Heat Island – Abilities and limitations, Building and Environment 45: 2192–2201.

Mochida, A.; Lun, I. Y. F. 2008. Prediction of wind environment and thermal comfort at pedestrian level in urban area, Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics 96: 1498–1527.

Monclus, R.; Villar, M.; Barbaroux, C.; Bastien, C.; Fichot, R.; Delmotte, F. M.; Brignolas, F. 2009. Productivity, water-use efficiency and tolerance to moderate water deficit correlate in 33 poplar genotypes from a Populus deltoides × Populus trichocarpa F1 progeny, Tree Physiology 29: 1329–1339.

Monsi, M.; Saeki, T. 2005. On the factor light in plant communities and its importance for matter production. 1953, Annals of Botany 95: 549–67.

Monterusso, M. A.; Rowe, D. B.; Rugh, C. L. 2005. Establishment and persistence of Sedum spp. and native taxa for green roof applications, HortScience 40(2): 391–396.

Morakinyo, T. E.; Dahanayake, K. W. D. K. C.; Ng, E. 2017a. Temperature and cooling demand reduction by green-roof types in different climates and urban densities: A co-simulation parametric study, Energy and Buildings 145: 226–237.

Morakinyo, T. E.; Kong, L.; Lau, K. K.-L.; Yuan, C.; Ng, E. 2017b. A study on the impact of shadow-cast and tree species on in-canyon and neighborhood’s thermal comfort, Building and Environment 115: 1–17.

Morakinyo, T. E.; Lai, A.; Lau, K. K.-L.; Ng, E. 2017c. Thermal benefits of vertical greening in a high-density city: Case study of Hong Kong, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. In Press, Corrected Proof.

Morakinyo, T. E.; Lam, Y. F. 2015. Simulation study of dispersion and removal of particulate matter from traffic by road-side vegetation barrier, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(7): 6709–6722.

Morakinyo, T. E.; Lam, Y. F. 2016. Simulation study on the impact of tree-configuration, planting pattern and wind condition on street-canyon’s micro-climate and thermal comfort, Building and Environment 103: 262–275.

Morakinyo, T. E.; Lau, K. K. L.; Ren, C.; Ng, E. 2018. Performance of Hong Kong’s common trees species for outdoor temperature regulation, thermal comfort and energy saving, Building and Environment 137: 157–170.

Moriyama, M.; Kono, H.; Yoshida, A.; Miyazaki, H.; Takebayashi, H. 2001. Data analysis on “cool spot” effect of green canopy in urban areas, Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ) 66: 49–56.

Moriyama, M.; Takebayashi, H.; Fukumoto, K. 1997. Effects of green areas on urban air temperature by numerical solution, Kobe University Repository 15: 101–115.

Myint, S. W. 2006. Urban vegetation mapping using sub-pixel analysis and expert systems rules: a critical approach, International Journal of Remote Sensing 27: 2645–2665.

Myint, S. W.; Gober, P.; Brazel, A.; Grossman-Clarke, S.; Weng, P. 2011. Per-pixel vs object based classification of urban land cover extraction using high spatial resolution imagery, Remote Sensing of Environment 115: 1145–1161.

Naeem, S.; Cao, C.; Qazi, W.; Zamani, M.; Wei, C.; Archarya, B.; Rehman, A. 2018. Studying the association between green space characteristics and land surface temperature for sustainable urban environments: An analysis of Beijing and Islamabad, International Journal of Geo-Information 7: 38–72.

Nagase, A.; Dunnett, N. 2010. Drought tolerance in different vegetation types for extensive green roofs: effects of watering and diversity, Landscape and Urban Planning 97: 318–327.

Nagashima, K. 1996. From decocity towards ecocity, Ekistics 63: 70–79.

Nakayoshi, M.; Kanda, M.; Shi, R.; de Dear, R. 2014. Outdoor thermal physiology along human pathways: a study using a wearable measurement system, International Journal of Biometeorology 59(5): 503–515.

National Parks Board. 2017. A handbook on developing sustainable highrise gardens bringing greenery skywards.

Ng, E. 2009. Policies and technical guidelines for urban planning of high-density cities–air ventilation assessment (AVA) of Hong Kong, Building and Environment 44(7): 1478–1488.

Ng, E.; Chen, L.; Wang, Y.; Yuan, C. 2012. A study on the cooling effects of greening in a high-density city: An experience from Hong Kong, Building and Environment 47: 256–271.

Nichol, J.; Lee, C. 2005. Urban vegetation monitoring in Hong Kong using high resolution multispectral images, International Journal of Remote Sensing 26: 903–918.

Nichol, J.; Wong, M. 2007. Remote sensing of urban vegetation life form by spectral mixture analysis of high-resolution IKONOS satellite images, International Journal of Remote Sensing 28: 985–1000.

Norton, B. A.; Coutts, A. M.; Livesley, S. J.; Harris, R. J.; Hunter, A. M.; Williams, N. S. 2015. Planning for cooler cities: A framework to prioritise green infrastructure to mitigate high temperatures in urban landscapes, Landscape and Urban Planning 134: 127–138.

Nowak, D. J.; Civerolo, K. L.; Rao, S. T.; Sistla, G.; Luley, C. J.; Crane, D. E. 2000. A modeling study of the impact of urban trees on ozone, Atmospheric Environment 34: 1601–1613.

Nowak, D. J.; Crane, D. E.; Stevens, J. C. 2006. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 4: 115–123.

Oke, T. R. 1982. The energetic basis of the urban heat island, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 108: 1–24.

Oke, T. R. 2002. Boundary layer climates. Routledge.

Oleson, K. W.; Lawrence, D. M.; Gordon, B.; Flanner, M. G.; Kluzek, E.; Peter, L. J.; Levis, S.; Swenson, S. C.; Thornton, P. E. 2010. Technical description of version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Technical Note. Boulder, CO, USA.

Oliveira, S.; Andrade, H.; Vaz, T. 2011. The cooling effect of green spaces as a contribution to the mitigation of urban heat: A case study in Lisbon, Building and Environment 46(11): 2186–2194.

Paliwal, R.; Röder, M. S.; Kumar, U.; Srivastava, J. P.; Joshi, A. K. 2012. QTL mapping of terminal heat tolerance in hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum L.), Theoretical and Applied Genetics 125(3): 561–575.

Palomo del Barrio, E. 1998. Analysis of the green roofs cooling potential in buildings, Energy and Buildings 27(2): 179–193.

Paolini, R.; Synnefa, A.; Haddad, S.; Ulpiani, G.; Garshasbi, S.; Prasad, D.; Santamouris, M. 2018. Cooling energy and electricity savings with urban climate mitigation. Submitted for publication.

Peng, S.; Piao, S.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Ottle, C.; Breon, F. M.; Nan, H.; Zhou, L.; Myneni, R. B. 2012. Surface urban heat island across 419 global big cities, Environmental Science Technology 46: 696–703.

Peri, G.; Rizzo, G.; Scaccianoce, G.; La Gennusa, M. 2016. Vegetation and soil – related parameters for computing solar radiation exchanges within green roofs: Are the available values adequate for an easy modeling of their thermal behavior?, Energy and Buildings 129: 535–548.

Perini, K.; Magliocco, A. 2014. Effects of vegetation, urban density, building height, and atmospheric conditions on local temperatures and thermal comfort, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 13(3): 495–506.

Pigliautile, I.; Pisello, A. L. 2018. A new wearable monitoring system for investigating pedestrians’ environmental conditions: Development of the experimental tool and start-up findings, Science of the Total Environment 630: 690–706.

Pinho, C.; Fonseca, L.; Korting, T.; Kux, H. 2012. Land-cover classification of an intra-urban environment using high-resolution images and object-based image analysis, International Journal of Remote Sensing 33: 5793–5995.

Pisello, A. L.; Piselli, C.; Cotana, F. 2016. Thermal-physics and energy performance of an innovative green roof system: The cool-green roof, Solar Energy 116: 337–356.

Pita, P.; Cañas, I.; Soria, F.; Ruiz, F.; Toval, G. 2005. Use of physiological traits in tree breeding for improved yield in drought-prone environments. The case of Eucalyptus globulus, Investigación Agraria Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 14: 383–393.

Pitman, S. D.; Daniels, C. B.; Ely, M. E. 2015. Green infrastructure as life support: urban nature and climate change, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 139(1): 97–112.

Potchter, O.; Cohen, P.; Lin, T.-P.; Matzarakis, A. 2018. Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification, Science of the Total Environment 631–632: 390–406.

Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Whyatt, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N. 2012. Effectiveness of green infrastructure for improvement of air quality in urban street canyons, Environmental Science & Technology 46: 7692–7699.

Qian, Y.; Zhen, W.; Yu, W.; Pickett, S. 2015b. Quantifying spatiotemporal pattern of pattern of urban greenspace: new insights from high resolution data, Landscape Ecology 30: 1165–1173.

Qian, Y.; Zhou, W.; Li, W.; Han, L. 2015a. Understanding the dynamics of greenspace in the urbanized area of Beijing based on high resolution satellite images, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 14: 39–47.

Raman, A. P.; Anoma, M. A.; Zhu, L.; Rephaeli, E.; Fan, S. 2014. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight, Nature 515: 540–4.

Razzaghmanesha, M.; Beechama, S.; Brienbc, C. J. 2014. Developing resilient green roofs in a dry climate, Science of the Total Environment 490(15): 579–589.

Reeve, A. C.; Desha, C.; Hargreaves, D.; Hargroves, K. 2015. Biophilic urbanism: contributions to holistic urban greening for urban renewal, Smart and Sustainable Built Environment 4: 215–233.

Reich, P. B.; Sendall, K. M.; Stefanski, A.; Wei, X.; Rich, R. L.; Montgomery, R. A. 2016. Boreal and temperate trees show strong acclimation of respiration to warming, Nature 531: 633–636.

Ren, Ζ.; He, X.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, D.; Yu, X.; Shen, G.; Guo, R. 2013. Estimation of the relationship between urban park characteristics and park cool island intensity by remote sensing data and field measurement, Forests 4: 868–886.

Rogers, A.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dukes, J. S.; Bonan, G.; von Caemmerer, S.; Dietze, M.; Kattge, J.; Leakey, A. D.; Mercado, L. M.; Niinemets, Ü.; Prentice, I. C.; Serbin, S. P.; Sitch, S.; Way, D. A.; Zaehle, S. 2017. A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models, New Phytologist 213: 22–42.

Rose, L. S.; Levinson, R. 2013. Analysis of the effect of vegetation on albedo in residential areas: Case studies in suburban Sacramento and Los Angeles, CA, GIScience & Remote Sensing 50(1): 64–77.

Rosenfeld, A. H.; Romm, J. J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M. 1998. Cool communities: strategies for heat islands mitigation and smog reduction, Energy and Buildings 28: 51–62.

Rossi, F.; Pisello, A. L.; Nicolini, A.; Filipponi, M.; Palombo, M. 2014. Analysis of retro-reflective surfaces for urban heat island mitigation: A new analytical model, Applied Energy 114: 621–631.

Rosso, F.; Pisello, A. L.; Cotana, F.; Ferrero, M. 2016. On the thermal and visual pedestrians’ perception about cool natural stones for urban paving: A field survey in summer conditions, Building and Environment 107: 198–214.

Rowe, D. B. 2011. Green roofs as a means of pollution abatement, Environmental Pollution 159: 2100–2110.

Saaroni, H.; Amorim J. H.; Hiemstra, J. A.; Pearlmutter, D. 2018. Urban Green Infrastructure as a tool for urban heat mitigation: Survey of research methodologies and findings across different climatic regions, Urban Climate 24: 94–110.

Sailor, D. J. 2008. A green roof model for building energy simulation programs, Energy and Buildings 40: 1466–1478.

Sailor, D. J.; Dietsch, N. 2007. The urban heat island Mitigation Impact Screening Tool (MIST), Environmental Modelling & Software 22(10): 1529–1541.

Saito, I.; Ishihara, O.; Katayama, T. 1990–991. Study of the effect of green areas on the thermal environment in an urban area, Energy and Buildings 15(3–4): 493–498.

Sandström, U. G. 2002. Green infrastructure planning in urban Sweden, Planning Practice and Research 17: 373–385.

Santamouris, M. 2014a. Cooling the cities – A review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments, Solar Energy 103: 682–703.

Santamouris, M. 2014b. On the energy impact of urban heat island and global warming on buildings, Energy and Buildings 82: 100–113.

Santamouris, M. 2015. Regulating the damaged thermostat of the cities – Status, impacts and mitigation strategies, Energy and Buildings 91: 43–56.

Santamouris, M.; Ding, L.; Fiorito, F.; Oldfield, P.; Osmond, P.; Paolini, R.; Prasad, D.; Synnefa, A. 2017. Passive and active cooling for the outdoor built environment – Analysis and assessment of the cooling potential of mitigation technologies using performance data from 220 large scale projects, Solar Energy 154: 14–33.

Santamouris, M.; Haddad, A. S.; Synnefa, A.; Paolini, R.; Hatvani-Kovacs, G.; Garshasbi, S. 2018. Heat mitigation program. Darwin Northern territory. Final Report. University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Santos Nouri, A.; Costa, J. P.; Santamouris, M.; Matzarakis, A. 2018. Approaches to outdoor thermal comfort thresholds through public space design: A review, Atmosphere 9(3): 108.

Satellite Imaging Corporation. 2018. Satellite sensors [online]. Available from Internet:

Savi, T.; Dal Borgo, A.; Love, V. L.; Andri, S.; Tretiach, M.; Nardini, A. 2016. Drought versus heat: What’s the major constraint on Mediterranean green roof plants?, Science of the Total Environment 566–567: 753–760.

Savva, Y.; Denneler, B.; Koubaa, A.; Tremblay, F.; Bergeron, Y.; Tjoelker, M. G. 2007. Seed transfer and climate change effects on radial growth of jack pine populations in a common garden in Petawawa, Ontario, Canada, Forest Ecology and Management 242(2–3): 636–647.

Schweitzer, O.; Erell, E. 2014. Evaluation of the energy performance and irrigation requirements of extensive green roofs in a water-scarce Mediterranean climate, Energy and Buildings 68: 25–32.

Scott, K. I.; Benjamin, M. T. 2003. Development of a biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventory for the SCOS97-NARSTO domain, Atmospheric Environment 37: 39–49.

Scott, K. I.; Simpson, J. R.; McPherson, E. G. 1999. Effects of tree cover on parking lot microclimate and vehicle emissions, Journal of Arboriculture 25: 129–142.

Selmi, W.; Weber, C.; Riviere, E.; Blond, N.; Mehdi, L.; Nowak, D. 2016. Air pollution removal by trees in public green spaces in Strasbourg City, France, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 17: 192–201.

Shahidan, M. F.; Jones, P. J.; Gwilliam, J.; Salleh, E. 2012. An evaluation of outdoor and building environment cooling achieved through combination modification of trees with ground materials, Building and Environment 58: 245–257.

Sharma, A.; Conry, P.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hamlet, A. F.; Hellmann, J. J.; Chen, F. 2016. Green and cool roofs to mitigate urban heat island effects in the Chicago metropolitan area: Evaluation with a regional climate model, Environmental Research Letters 11: 064004.

Shashua-Bar, L.; Hoffman, M. 2000. Vegetation as a climatic component in the design of an urban street: An empirical model for predicting the cooling effect of urban green areas with trees, Energy and Buildings 31(3): 221–235.

Shashua-Bar, L.; Hoffman, M. E. 2004. Quantitative evaluation of passive cooling of the UCL microclimate in hot regions in summer, case study: urban streets and courtyards with trees, Building and Environment 39(9): 1087–1099.

Shashua-Bar, L.; Pearlmutter, D.; Erell, E. 2009. The cooling efficiency of urban landscape strategies in a hot dry climate, Landscape and Urban Planning 92(3–4): 179–186.

Silva, H.; Fillpot, B. S. 2018. Modeling nexus of urban heat island mitigation strategies with electricity/power usage and consumer costs: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 131(1–2): 661–669.

Skoulika, F.; Santamouris, M.; Kolokotsa, D.; Boemia, N. 2013. On the thermal characteristics and the mitigation potential of a medium size urban park in Athens, Greece, Landscape and Urban Planning 123: 73–86.

Solecki, W. D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Parshall, L.; Pope, G.; Clark, M.; Cox, J.; Wiencke, M. 2005. Mitigation of the heat island effect in urban New Jersey, Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1): 39–49.

Speak, A.; Rothwell, J.; Lindley, S.; Smith, C. 2012. Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city, Atmospheric Environment 61: 283–293.

Spronken-Smith, R. A. 1994. Energetics and cooling in urban parks. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia.

Spronken-Smith, R.; Oke, T. 1998. The thermal regime of urban parks in two cities with different summer climates, International Journal of Remote Sensing 19(11): 2085–2104.

Stathopoulou, M.; Cartalis, C. 2009. Downscaling AVHRR land surface temperatures for improved surface urban heat island intensity estimation, Remote Sensing of Environment 113: 2592–2605.

Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P.; D’Andrea, F.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N. 2012. Effects of interactive vegetation phenology on the 2003 summer heat waves, Journal of Geophysical Research 117: D24103.

Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P.; D’Andrea, F.; Lebeaupin-Brossier, C.; Bastin, S. 2014. Soil moisture-temperature feedbacks at meso-scale during summer heat waves over Western Europe, Climate Dynamics 42: 1309–1324.

Stewart, I. D.; Oke, T. R.; Krayenhoff, E. S. 2014. Evaluation of the ‘local climate zone’ scheme using temperature observations and model simulations, International Journal of Climatology 34: 1062–1080.

Sun, C.-Y.; Brazel, A. J.; Chow, W. T. L.; Hedquist, B. C.; Prashad, L. 2009. Desert heat island study by mobile transect and remote sensing techniques, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 98: 323–335.

Taha, H. 1996. Modeling the impacts of increased urban vegetation on the Ozone Air Quality in the South Coast Air Basin, Atmospheric Environment 30: 3423–3430.

Taha, H. 2005. Urban surface modification as a potential ozone air-quality improvement strategy in California – Phase 1: Initial mesoscale modeling. Final report prepared by Altostratus Inc. for the California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, PIER Environmental Research.

Taha, H. 2007. Urban surface modification as a potential ozone air-quality improvement strategy in California – Phase 2: Fine-resolution meteorological and photochemical modeling of urban heat islands. Final report prepared by Altostratus Inc. for the California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California, PIER Environmental Research.

Taha, H. 2008a. Urban surface modification as a potential ozone air-quality improvement strategy in California: A mesoscale modeling study, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 127: 219–239.

Taha, H. 2008b. Meso-urban meteorological and photochemical modeling of heat island mitigation, Atmospheric Environment 42: 8795–8809.

Taha, H. 2013. Meteorological, emissions, and air-quality modeling of heat-island mitigation: Recent findings for California, U.S.A., International Journal of Low Carbon Technologies 10(1): 3–14.

Taha, H. 2015a. Cool cities: counteracting potential climate change and its health impacts, Current Climate Change Reports 1(3): 163–175.

Taha, H. 2015b. Meteorological, air-quality, and emission-equivalence impacts of urban heat island control in California, Sustainable Cities and Society 19: 207–221.

Taha, H. 2017. Characterization of urban heat and exacerbation: Development of a heat island index for California, Climate 5: 59.

Taha, H.; Chang, S. C.; Akbari, H. 2000. Meteorological and air quality impacts of heat island mitigation measures in three U.S. cities. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBNL-44222, Berkeley, CA.

Taha, H.; Konopacki, S.; Gabersek, S. 1996. Modeling the meteorological and energy effects of urban heat islands and their mitigation: A 10-Region study. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-38667, Berkeley, CA.

Taha, H.; Levinson, R.; Mohegh, A.; Gilbert, H.; Ban-Weiss, G.; Chen, S. 2018. Air-temperature response to neighborhood-scale variations in Albedo and canopy cover in the real world: Fine-resolution meteorological modeling and mobile temperature observations in the Los Angeles climate archipelago, Climate 6: 53.

Taha, H.; Sailor, D. 2010. Evaluating the effects of radiative forcing feedback in modeling urban ozone air quality in Portland, Oregon: Two-way coupled MM5-CMAQ numerical model simulations, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 137: 291–305.

Taha, H.; Wilkinson, J.; Bornstein, R.; Xiao, Q.; McPherson, G.; Simpson, J.; Anderson, C.; Lau, S.; Lam, J.; Blain, C. 2015. An urban–forest control measure for ozone in the Sacramento, CA Federal Non-Attainment Area (SFNA), Sustainable Cities and Society 21: 51–65.

Takano, T.; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, M. 2002. Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas: The importance of walkable green spaces, Journal of Epidemiology Community Health 56: 913–918.

Takebayashi, H. 2017. Influence of urban green area on air temperature of surrounding built-up area, Climate 5: 60.

Tan, C. L.; Wong, N. H.; Jusuf, S. K. 2014. Effects of vertical greenery on mean radiant temperature in the tropical urban environment, Landscape and Urban Planning 127: 52–64.

Tan, Z.; Lau, K. K. L.; Ng, E. 2017. Planning strategies for roadside tree planting and outdoor comfort enhancement in subtropical high-density urban areas, Building and Environment 120: 93–109.

Tanaka, A.; Takano, T.; Nakam Ura, K.; Takeuchi, S. 1996. Health levels influenced by urban residential conditions in a Megacity – Tokyo, Urban Studies 33(6): 879–894.

Teskey, R.; Wertin, T.; Bauweraerts, I.; Ameye, M.; McGuire, M. A.; Steppe, K. 2015. Responses of tree species to heat waves and extreme heat events, Plant Cell and Environment 38(9): 1699–1712.

Todd, J. A.; Crawley, D.; Geissler, S.; Lindsey, G. 2001. Comparative assessment of environmental performance tools and the role of the Green Building Challenge, Building Research & Information 29(5): 324–335.

TreePeople. 2017. City of Los Angeles approved street tree list [online], [cited 01 July 2017]. Available from Internet:

Tzoulas, K.; Korpela, K.; Venn, S.; Yli-Pelkonen, V.; Kaźmierczak, A.; Niemela, J.; James, P. 2007. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review, Landscape Urban Planning 81: 167–178.

Ulrich, R. S. 1984. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery, Science 224: 420–421.

Ulrich, R. S.; Simonst, R. F.; Lositot, B. D.; Fioritot, E.; Milest, M. A.; Zelsont, M. 1991. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments, Journal of Environmental Psychology 11(3): 201–230.

Upmanis, H.; Eliasson, I.; Lindqvist, S. 1998. The influence of green areas on nocturnal temperatures in a high latitude city (Goteborg, Sweden), International Journal of Climatology 18(6): 681–700.<681::AID-JOC289>3.0.CO;2-L

Urban Atlas. 2012 [online], [cited 01 July 2017]. Available from Internet:

Urban, J.; Ingwers, M. W.; McGuire, M. A.; Teskey, R. O. 2017. Increase in leaf temperature opens stomata and decouples net photosynthesis from stomatal conductance in Pinus taeda and Populus deltoides x nigra, Journal of Experimental Botany 68: 1757–1767.

Vacek, P.; Struhala, K.; Matejka, L. 2017. Life-cycle study on semi intensive green roofs, Journal of Cleaner Production 154: 203–213.

Vahmani, P.; Ban-Weiss, G. 2016. Climatic consequences of adopting drought-tolerant vegetation over Los Angeles as a response to California drought, Geophysical Research Letters 43(15): 8240–8249.

Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S. 2015. Urban irrigation effects on WRF-UCM summertime forecast skill over the Los Angeles metropolitan area, Journal of Geophysical Research 120(19): 9869–9881.

Van de Voorde, T.; Vlaeminck, J.; Canters, F. 2008. Comparing different approaches for mapping urban vegetation cover from Landsat ETM+ data: A case study on Brussels, Sensors 8: 3880–3902.

Vanos, J. K.; Warland, J. S.; Gillespie, T. J.; Slater, G. A.; Brown, R. D.; Kenny, N. A. 2012. Human energy budget modeling in urban parks in Toronto and applications to emergency heat stress preparedness, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51(9): 1639–1653.

Vassos, E.; Agerbo, E.; Mors, O.; Pedersen, C. B. 2016. Urban-rural differences in incidence rates of psychiatric disorders in Denmark, The British Journal of Psychiatry 208: 435–440.

Vaz Monteiro, M.; Blanusa, T.; Verhoef, A.; Richardson, M.; Hadley, P.; Cameron, R. W. F. 2017. Functional green roofs: Importance of plant choice in maximizing summertime environmental cooling and substrate insulation potential, Energy and Buildings 141: 56–68.

Venhari, A. A.; Tenpierik, M.; Hakak, A. M. 2017. Heat mitigation by greening the cities, a review study, Environment, Earth and Ecology 1(1): 5–32.

Vinocur, B.; Altman, A. 2005. Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: Achievements and limitations, Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16(2): 123–132.

von Caemmerer, S.; Evans, J. R. 2015. Temperature responses of mesophyll conductance differ greatly between species, Plant, Cell & Environment 38: 629–637.

Vos, P. E.; Maiheu, B.; Vankerkom, J.; Janssen, S. 2013. Improving local air quality in cities: to tree or not to tree?, Environmental Pollution 183: 113–122.

Wahid, A.; Gelani, S.; Ashraf, M.; Foolad, M. R. 2007. Heat tolerance in plants: an overview, Environmental and Experimental Botany 61(3): 199–223.

Ward, K.; Lauf, S.; Kleinschmit, B.; Endlicher, W. 2016. Heat waves and urban heat islands in Europe: A review of relevant drivers, Science of the Total Environment 569–570: 527–539.

Watkins, R. 1999. The impact of the urban environment on the energy demand for cooling buildings. Project report, Brunel University, London.

Watkins, R.; Palmer, J.; Kolokotroni, M.; Littlefair, P. 2002. The London heat island – Surface and air temperature measurements in a park and street gorges, ASHRAE Transactions 108(1): 419–427.

Wedding, G. C.; Crawford-Brown, D. 2007. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: A focus on sustainability and green building, Journal of Environmental Management 85(2): 483–495.

Wolch, J. R.; Byrne, J.; Newell, J. P. 2014. Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities “just green enough”, Landscape Urban Planning 125: 234–244.

Wong, N. H.; Chen, Y.; Ong, C. L.; Sia, A. 2003b. Investigation of thermal benefits of rooftop garden in the tropical environment, Building and Environment 38(2): 261–270.

Wong, N. H.; Cheong, D. W.; Yan, H.; Soh, J.; Ong, C. L.; Sia, A. 2003a. The effects of rooftop garden on energy consumption of a commercial building in Singapore, Energy and Buildings 35(4): 353–364.

Wong, N. H.; Chong, A. Z. M. 2010. Performance evaluation of misting fans in hot and humid climate, Building and Environment 45: 2666–2678.

Wong, N. H.; Puay Yok, T.; Yu, C. 2007. Study of thermal performance of extensive rooftop greenery systems in the tropical climate, Building and Environment 42(1): 25–54.

Wong, N. H.; Yong, A.; Tan, K.; Chen, Y.; Sekar, K.; Tan, Y. P.; Chan, D.; Chiang, K.; Wong, N. C. 2010. Thermal evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls, Building and Environment 45(3): 663–672.

Wu, C. 2004. Normalized spectral mixture analysis for monitoring urban composition using ETM+ imagery, Remote Sensing for Environment 93: 480–492.

Xiao, X. D.; Dong, L.; Yan, H.; Yang, N.; Xiong, Y. 2018. The influence of the spatial characteristics of urban green space on the urban heat island effect in Suzhou Industrial Park, Sustainable Cities and Society 40: 428–439.

Yan, H.; Fan, S.; Guo, C.; Wu, F.; Zhang, N.; Dong, I. 2014. Assessing the effects of landscape design parameters on intra-urban air temperature variability: the case of Beijing, China, Building and Environment 76: 44–53.

Yang, G.; Ge, Y.; Xue, H.; Yang, W.; Shi, Y.; Peng, C.; Du, Y.; Fan, X.; Ren, Y.; Chang, J. 2015b. Using ecosystem service bundles to detect trade-offs and synergies across urban-rural complexes, Landscape and Urban Planning 136: 110–121.

Yang, J.; Chang, Y.; Yan, P. 2015a. Ranking the suitability of common urban tree species for controlling PM2.5 pollution, Atmospheric Pollution Research 6: 267–277.

Yang, J.; Wang, Z. H. 2017. Planning for a sustainable desert city: The potential water buffering capacity of urban green infrastructure, Landscape and Urban Planning 167: 339–347.

Yang, J.; Yu, Q.; Gong, P. 2008. Quantifying air-pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago, Atmospheric Environment 42: 7266–7273.

Yao, Y.; Luo, Y.; Huang, J.; Zhao, Z. 2013. Comparison of monthly temperature extremes simulated by CMIP3 and CMIP5 models, Journal of Climate 26: 7692–7707.

Ye, C.; Argayoso, M. A.; Redoña, E. D.; Sierra, S. N.; Laza, M. A.; Dilla, C. J.; Mo, Y.; Thomson, M. J.; Chin, J.; Delaviña, C. B.; Diaz, G. Q.; Hernandez, J. E. 2012. Mapping QTL for heat tolerance at flowering stage in rice using SNP markers, Plant Breeding 131(1): 33–41.

Ye, X.; Busov, V.; Zhao, N.; Meilan, R.; McDonnell, L. M.; Coleman, H. D.; Mansfield, S. D.; Chen, F.; Li, Y. Cheng, Z. M. 2011. Transgenic populus trees for forest products, bioenergy, and functional genomics, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 30(5): 415–434.

Yli-Pelkonen, V.; Setala, H.; Viippola, V. 2017. Urban forests near roads do not reduce gaseous air pollutant concentrations but have an impact on particles levels, Landscape and Urban Planning 158: 39–47.

Yu, C.; Hien, W. N. 2006. Thermal benefits of city parks, Energy and Buildings 38: 105–120.

Yu, Z.; Xu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Jørgensen, G.; Vejre, H. 2018. Strong contributions of local background climate to the cooling effect of urban green vegetation, Scientific Reports – Nature 8: 6798.

Yuan, F.; Bauer, M. E. 2007. Comparison of impervious surface and normalized difference vegetation index as indicators of surface urban heat island effects in Landsat imagery, Remote Sensing for the Environment 106: 375–386.

Yue, W.; Xu, J.; Tan, W.; Xu, L. 2007. The relationship between land surface temperature and NDVI with remote sensing techniques: application to Shanghai Landsat 7 ETM+ data, International Journal of Remote Sensing 28: 3205–3226.

Zhang, L.; Tan, P. Y.; Diehl, J. A. 2017. A conceptual framework for studying urban green spaces effects on health, Journal of Urban Ecology 3(1).

Zheng, T.; Lau, K. K.-L.; Ng, E. 2016. Urban tree design approaches for mitigating daytime urban heat island effects in a high-density urban environment, Energy and Buildings 114: 265–274.

Zoulia, I.; Santamouris, M.; Dimoudi, A. 2009. Monitoring the effect of urban green areas on the heat island in Athens, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 156(1–4): 275–292.

Zuo, J.; Zhao, Z. Y. 2014. Green building research – current status and future agenda: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 30: 271–281.

Zweifel, R.; Zimmermann, L.; Zeugin, F.; Newbery, D. M. 2006. Intra-annual radial growth and water relations of trees: implications towards a growth mechanism, Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 1445–1459.