Understanding the effect of co-worker support on construction safety performance from the perspective of risk theory: an agent-based modeling approach
Co-worker safety support has been given prominence in manufacturing and transportation field for its positive effect on individual workers’ safety; however, there is little evidence to show if such supporting role of co-workers is significant in improving project-level safety performance in construction workplace. This study adopts agent-based modeling (ABM) to understand the effectiveness of two distinct co-worker-safety-support actions on the safety performance of a construction project. Based on the risk theory, the ABM model simulates a construction site where worker agents reinforce steel bars with the likelihood of suffering crane-related incidents. The results indicate that both co-worker-support actions can significantly reduce the occurrence of nonfatal incidents but shows little influence in fatal incidents, and in reducing high-severity incidents, the action of warning peers to leave the hazardous area has the same effectiveness as reminding peers to wear Personal Protective Equipment. The present study provides a fresh insight into the safety-related role of co-workers: not only reveals how the local-level effects of co-workers’ safety assistance emerge the system-level consequences, but demonstrates the effectiveness of specific peer-support actions on three levels of construction safety performance, and thereby extends our existing body of knowledge on co-worker safety support in the construction field.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abdul-Rashid, I., Bassioni, H., & Bawazeer, F. (2007). Factors affecting safety performance in large construction contractors in Egypt. In Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of Association of Researchers in Construction Management (pp. 661-670). Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Awwad, R., Shdid, C. A., & Tayeh, R. (2016). Agent-based model for simulating construction safety climate in a market environment. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 31(1), 05016003. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943-5487.0000612
Axelrod, R. (1997). Advancing the art of simulation in the social sciences. In Proceedings of the Simulating Social Phenomena. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems (pp. 21-40). Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03366-1_2
BLS. (2014). Incidence rate and number of nonfatal occupational injuries by industry and ownership, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/ostb4351.pdf
BLS. (2016a). Census of fatal occupational injuries, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cfch0014.pdf
BLS. (2016b). Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/osh2.pdf
BLS. (2017). Schedule of upcoming releases and access to archived news releases. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/iif/osh_nwrl.htm
BMJ. (2018). Statements of probability and confidence intervals. Retrieved from https://www.bmj.com/about-bmj/resources-readers/publications/statistics-square-one/4-statements-probability-and-confiden
Bonabeau, E. (2002). Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 99(Suppl 3), 7280-7287. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.082080899
Brondino, M., Silva, S. A., & Pasini, M. (2012). Multilevel approach to organizational and group safety climate and safety performance: Co-workers as the missing link. Safety Science, 50(9), 1847-1856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.04.010
Bruk-Lee, V., & Spector, P. E. (2006). The social stressors-counterproductive work behaviors link: Are conflicts with supervisors and coworkers the same?. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(2), 145-156. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.124
Burt, C. D., Gladstone, K. L., & Grieve, K. R. (1998). Development of the Considerate and Responsible Employee (CARE) scale. Work & Stress, 12(4), 362-369. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678379808256873
Chan, A. P. C. (2005). From attitude to culture: Effect of safety climate on construction safety. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong.
Chen, Y., McCabe, B., & Hyatt, D. (2018). A resilience safety climate model predicting construction safety performance. Safety Science, 109, 434-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.07.003
Cheng, E. W., Ryan, N., & Kelly, S. (2012). Exploring the perceived influence of safety management practices on project performance in the construction industry. Safety Science, 50(2), 363-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.09.016
Chiaburu, D. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2008). Do peers make the place? Conceptual synthesis and meta-analysis of coworker effects on perceptions, attitudes, OCBs, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1082-1103. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.1082
Choudhry, R. M., & Fang, D. (2008). Why operatives engage in unsafe work behavior: Investigating factors on construction sites. Safety Science, 46(4), 566-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.06.027
DuPont, E. I. (1983). Results of ten year DuPont study. Safety Training Observation Program. Wilmington, Delaware.
Eberlen, J., Scholz, G., & Gagliolo, M. (2017). Simulate this! An introduction to agent-based models and their power to improve your research practice. International Review of Social Psychology, 30(1), 149-160. https://doi.org/10.5334/irsp.115
Epstein, J. M. 1999. Agent-based computational models and generative social science. Complexity, 4(5), 41-60. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0526(199905/06)4:5<41::AID-CPLX9>3.0.CO;2-F
Fang, D., Chen, Y., & Wong, L. (2006). Safety climate in construction industry: A case study in Hong Kong. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(6), 573-584. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:6(573)
Farooqui, R. U., Ahmed, S. M., Panthi, K., & Azhar, S. (2009). Addressing the issue of compliance with personal protective equipment on construction worksites: A workers’ perspective. Retrieved from http://ascpro0.ascweb.org/archives/cd/2009/paper/CPRT176002009.pdf
Fung, I. W., Lo, T. Y., & Tung, K. C. (2012). Towards a better reliability of risk assessment: Development of a qualitative & quantitative risk evaluation model (Q2 REM) for different trades of construction works in Hong Kong. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, 167-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.011
Geller, E. S. (1991). If only more would actively care. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 607-612.
Gilbert, N., & Terna, P. (2000). How to build and use agent-based models in social science. Mind & Society, 1(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02512229
Goh, Y. M., & Ali, M. J. A. (2016). A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 93, 310-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.09.01
Heinrich, H. W. (1959). Industrial accident prevention: A scientific approach (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hinze, J., & Godfrey, R. (2003). An evaluation of safety performance measures for construction projects. Journal of Construction Research, 4(1), 5-15. https://doi.org/10.1142/S160994510300025X
Hinze, J., Hallowell, M., & Baud, K. (2013). Construction-safety best practices and relationships to safety performance. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(10), 04013006. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000751
Ho, O. (2016). Nine in 10 construction deaths due to workers overlooking safety: Manpower Minister. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/manpower/nine-in-10-construction-deaths-due-to-workers-overlooking-safety-manpower
Hsu, S.-C., Weng, K.-W., Cui, Q., & Rand, W. (2016). Understanding the complexity of project team member selection through agent-based modeling. International Journal of Project Management, 34(1), 82-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2015.10.001
Jannadi, O. A., & Bu-Khamsin, M. S. (2002). Safety factors considered by industrial contractors in Saudi Arabia. Building and Environment, 37(5), 539-547. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(01)00056-7
Jaselskis, E. J., Anderson, S. D., & Russell, J. S. (1996). Strategies for achieving excellence in construction safety performance. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 122(1), 61-70. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1996)122:1(61)
Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 386-408. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2006.20208687
Keller, J. J. (2018). Guide to OSHA recordable injuries and illnesses. Retrieved from https://www.jjkeller.com/learn/guide-to-OSHA-recordable-injuries-and-illnesses
Krause, T. R. (1997). The behavior-based safety process: Managing involvement for an injury-free culture (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
LD/T74.1-4-2008: The labor production standards for construction works (1 ed.). (2009). China Planning Press, Beijing.
Li, H., Lu, M., Hsu, S.-C., Gray, M., & Huang, T. (2015). Proactive behavior-based safety management for construction safety improvement. Safety Science, 75, 107-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.01.013
Lu, M., Cheung, C. M., Li, H., & Hsu, S.-C. (2016). Understanding the relationship between safety investment and safety performance of construction projects through agent-based modeling. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 94, 8-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.05.014
Man, S. S., Chan, A. H. S., & Wong, H. M. (2017). Risk-taking behaviors of Hong Kong construction workers – A thematic study. Safety Science, 98, 25-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.05.004
Manuele, F. A. (2005). Risk assessment and hierarchies of control. Professional Safety, 50(5), 33-39.
Marzouk, M., & Ali, H. (2013). Modeling safety considerations and space limitations in piling operations using agent based simulation. Expert Systems with Applications, 40(12), 4848-4857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2013.02.021
McFadden, A. (2015). The impact of co-workers on safety outcomes: Comparing models of mediation, moderation, and incremental effects (Dissertation, Clemson University).
Meliá, J. L., Mearns, K., Silva, S. A., & Lima, M. L. (2008). Safety climate responses and the perceived risk of accidents in the construction industry. Safety Science, 46(6), 949-958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.11.004
Milazzo, M. F., Spasojević-Brkić, V., & Ancione, G. (2015). Safety in crane operations: An overview on crane-related accidents. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Industrial Engineering (SIE 2015). Belgrade, Serbia.
Mohamed, S. (2002). Safety climate in construction site environments. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128(5), 375-384. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2002)128:5(375)
Mueller, L., DaSilva, N., Townsend, J., & Tetrick, L. (1999). An empirical evaluation of competing safety climate measurement models. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Atlanta, GA.
NIOSH. (2018). Hierarchy of controls. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/hierarchy/
OSHA. (2004). Injury & Illness Recordkeeping Forms - 300, 300A, 301.
Randles, V. (2009). PPE matters. A report on attitudes towards Personal Protective Equipment in the construction industry. Retrieved from http://solutions.3m.com/3MContentRetrievalAPI/BlobServlet?lmd=1235730447000&locale=en_GB&univid=1180609729108&fallback=true&assetType=MMM_Image&blobAttribute=ImageFile&placeId=7BC6E48B1800BAE180A88EBDDE34DE24&version=current
Rayner, K. (1975). The perceptual span and peripheral cues in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 7(1), 65-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(75)90005-5
Rebbitt, D. (2014). Pyramid power: A new view of the great safety pyramid. Professional Safety, 59(9), 30-34.
Reyes, A. (2014). Lost time accident. Retrieved from https://www.escservices.com/2014/08/19/lost-time-accident/
Roberts, D. S., & Geller, E. S. (1996). An “actively caring” model for occupational safety: A field test. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4(1), 53-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849(05)80051-4
Rousseau, D. M., & Fried, Y. (2001). Location, location, location: Contextualizing organizational research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.78
Sawacha, E., Naoum, S., & Fong, D. (1999). Factors affecting safety performance on construction sites. International Journal of Project Management, 17(5), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00042-8
Sawhney, A., Bashford, H., Walsh, K., & Mulky, A. R. (2003). Agent-based modeling and simulation in construction. In Proceedings of the 2003 Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 1541-1547). New Orleans, Louisiana.
Sharpanskykh, A., & Stroeve, S. H. (2011). An agent-based approach for structured modeling, analysis and improvement of safety culture. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 17(1), 77-117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10588-011-9083-9
Tam, C. M., & Fung, I. W. H. (1998). Effectiveness of safety management strategies on safety performance in Hong Kong. Construction Management and Economics, 16(1), 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/014461998372583
Tucker, S., Chmiel, N., Turner, N., Hershcovis, M. S., & Stride, C. B. (2008). Perceived organizational support for safety and employee safety voice: The mediating role of coworker support for safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 319. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89126.96.36.1999
Turner, N., Chmiel, N., Hershcovis, M. S., & Walls, M. (2010). Life on the line: Job demands, perceived co-worker support for safety, and hazardous work events. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4), 482. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021004
UAW. (2001). Warning! Behavior-based safety can be hazardous to your health and safety program! Retrieved from http://www.uawlocal974.org/BSSafety/Warning!_Behavior-Based_Safety_Can_Be_Hazardous_To_Your_Health_and_Safety_Program!.pdf
UMSL. (2014). OSHA fact sheet: Personal Protective Equipment. Retrieved from http://www.umsl.edu/~environment/training/oshappe.html
UNISDR. (2009). Terminology on disaster risk reduction. Retrieved from https://www.unisdr.org/files/7817_UNISDRTerminologyEnglish.pdf
Walsh, K. D., & Sawhney, A. (2004). Agent-based modeling of worker safety behavior at the construction workface. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (pp. 779-792). Helsingør, Denmark.
Watson, G. W., Scott, D., Bishop, J., & Turnbeaugh, T. (2005). Dimensions of interpersonal relationships and safety in the steel industry. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(3), 303-318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-004-2230-2
Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. Retrieved from http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/
Wilensky, U. (2015). An introduction to agent-based modeling: modeling natural, social, and engineered complex systems with NetLogo. The MIT Press.