Patent cooperative patterns and development trends of Chinese construction enterprises: A network analysis
Despite the rapid development of Chinese construction industry, there has been little research effort directed towards exploring patent cooperative patterns and evolution trends of construction enterprises, especially from the perspective of the patent development network. This paper extracts implicit collaborative information and introduces Social Network Analysis (SNA) method to conduct the patentometric analysis based on patent data from the “Top 500 Chinese Construction Enterprises” sourced from PatSnap database. The enterprise-enterprise networks and enterprise-university networks are analyzed quantitatively. The results reveal that: 1) there is a rising trend in the number of patents and patentees; 2) state-owned enterprises play a dominant role in patent development; 3) most of patents are classified as International Patent Classification E04G21; 4) the cooperative relationships are mainly within enterprises and their subsidiaries; 5) when enterprises choose to cooperate with universities, in addition to professional qualification, geographical factors should also be considered. Finally, the development and patent evolution trends are discussed. Some useful suggestions are proposed. The contribution lies in: (a) providing a visualization of the implicit collaboration information of patents in Chinese construction enterprises; (b) revealing cooperative patterns of construction enterprises on patents; and (c) providing enterprises some useful suggestions for patent cooperation.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Akis, E. (2015). Innovation and competitive power. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 1311-1320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.304
Albino, V., Ardito, L., Dangelico, R. M., & Petruzzelli, A. M. (2014). Understanding the development trends of low-carbon energy technologies: A patent analysis. Applied Energy, 135(C), 836-854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.012
Bastian, M., Heymann, S., & Jacomy, M. (2009). Gephi: An open source software for exploring and manipulating networks. In Proceedings of 3rd International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. San Jose, USA: AAAI Press.
Batool, K., & Niazi, M. A. (2014). Towards a methodology for validation of centrality measures in complex networks. Plos One, 9(4), 90283. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090283
Blondel, V. D., Guillaume, J. L., Lambiotte, R., & Lefebvre, E. (2008). Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory & Experiment, 10, 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/2008/10/p10008
Boccaletti, S., Latora, V., Moreno, Y., Chavez, M., & Hwang, D. U. (2006). Complex networks: structure and dynamics. Physics Reports, 424(4), 175-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2005.10.009
Brin, S., & Page, L. (1998). The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual web search engine. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 30(1), 107-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00110-X
Bronzini, R., & Piselli, P. (2016). The impact of R&D subsidies on firm innovation. Research Policy, 45(2), 442-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2015.10.008
Brookes, S., & Huynh, H. (2018). Transport networks and towns in roman and early medieval England: an application of page rank to archaeological questions. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, 17, 477-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.11.033
Burhan, M., Singh, A. K., & Jain, S. K. (2017). Patents as proxy for measuring innovations: A case of changing patent filing behavior in Indian public funded research organizations. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 123, 181-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.04.002
Choe, H., Lee, D. H., Kim, H. D., & Seo, I. W. (2016). Structural properties and inter-organizational knowledge flows of patent citation network: the case of organic solar cells. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55, 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.150
Ding, R., & Liu, F. (2011). A social network theory of stakeholders in China’s Project Governance. I-Business, 3(2), 114-122. https://doi.org/10.4236/ib.2011.32017
Freeman, L. C. (2005). The development of social network analysis. A study in the sociology of science. Canada: Empirical Press.
Gao, X. D., & Zhao, X. (2015). Advantages and disadvantages of large-scale state-owned enterprises in technological innovation. Oil Forum, 5, 43-47.
Google. (2001). Google Press Center: Fun facts. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20010715123343/https://www.google.com/press/funfacts.html
Google. (2014). Facts about Google and competition. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20111104131332/https://www.google.com/competition/howgooglesearchworks.html
Hatala, J. P., & Lutta, J. G. (2009). Managing information sharing within an organizational setting: a social network perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(4), 5-33. https://doi.org/10.1002/piq.20036
Kessler, J., & Sperling, D. (2016). Tracking U.S. biofuel innovation through patents. Energy Policy, 98, 97-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.08.021
Kim, C., Kim, H., Han, S. H., Kim, C., Kim, M. K., & Park, S. H. (2009). Developing a technology roadmap for construction R&D through interdisciplinary research efforts. Automation in Construction, 18(3), 330-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2008.09.008
Kim, G., & Bae, J. (2017). A novel approach to forecast promising technology through patent analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 117, 228-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.11.023
Kroll, H. (2016). Exploring pathways of regional technological development in China through patent analysis. World Patent Information, 46, 74-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2016.06.003
Kunz, N. C., Kastelle, T., & Moran, C. J. (2017). Social network analysis reveals that communication gaps may prevent effective water management in the mining sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 148, 915-922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.175
Latora, V., & Marchiori, M. (2001). Efficient behavior of small-world networks. Physical Review Letters, 87(19), 198701. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.198701
Le, Y., Chong, D., & Cao, D. P. (2010). Research on construction project organization based on SNA. Construction Economy, 8, 34-38.
Levy, R., Roux, P., & Wolff, S. (2009). An analysis of science – industry collaborative patterns in a large European University. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 34(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-007-9044-0
Li, X. T. (2015). Social network analysis of stakeholder relationships during construction industrialization in China (Doctoral dissertation). North China University of Technology.
Logica, B., & Magdalena, R. (2015). Using big data in the academic environment. Procedia Economics and Finance, 33, 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01712-8
Moussa, B., & Varsakelis, N. C. (2017). International patenting: an application of network analysis. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 15, 48-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeca.2016.12.001
Nakamura, H., Suzuki, S., Kajikawa, Y., & Osawa, M. (2015). The effect of patent family information in patent citation network analysis: a comparative case study in the drivetrain domain. Scientometrics, 104(2), 437-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1626-2
National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn
Newman, M. E. J. (2003). The structure and function of complex networks. SIAM Review, 45(2), 167-256. https://doi.org/10.1137/S003614450342480
Nickerson, J. V., Steiny, D., & Oinas-Kukkonen, H. (2014, January 6-9). Introduction to the humanized web: Networks, crowds, and their output minitrack. In 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Waikoloa, HI, USA. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2014.232
Otte, E., & Rousseau, R. (2002). Social network analysis: a powerful strategy, also for the information sciences. Journal of Information Science, 28(6), 441-453. https://doi.org/10.1177/016555150202800601
Pan, H., Zheng, F., & Li, Y. K. (2017). The development about Social Network Analysis and the review about its application on engineering. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management 2016 (pp. 263-267). https://doi.org/10.2991/978-94-6239-255-7_47
Pantano, E., Priporas, C. V., Sorace, S., & Iazzolino, G. (2017). Does innovation-orientation lead to retail industry growth? Empirical evidence from patent analysis. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 34, 88-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.10.001
Patel, D., & Ward, M. R. (2011). Using patent citation patterns to infer innovation market competition. Research Policy, 40(6), 886-894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2011.03.006
Pering, Y. H., & Huang, Y. Y. (2016). Investigation of technological trends in shading devices through patent analysis. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 22(6), 818-830. https://doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2014.914091
Ponds, R., Oort, F. V., & Frenken, K. (2009). Innovation, spillovers and university – industry collaboration: an extended knowledge production function approach. Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography, 10(2), 231-255. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbp036
Qiao, P. H., Ju, X. F., & Fung, H. G. (2014). Industry association networks, innovations, and firm performance in Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises. China Economic Review, 29, 213-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2014.04.011
Rowley, T. J. (1997). Moving beyond dyadic ties: a network theory of stakeholder influences. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 887-910. http://doi.org/10.2307/259248
Ryan, C., & Creech, H. (2012). An experiment with social network analysis. Retrieved from https://www.google.ro/?gws_rd=ssl#q=as+experiment+Network+analysis+software
Semih Akçomak, İ., & Weel, B. T. (2009). Social capital, innovation and growth: Evidence from Europe. European Economic Review, 53(5), 544-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2008.10.001
Wang, C. C., Sung, H. Y., Chen, D. Z., & Huang, M. H. (2017). Strong ties and weak ties of the knowledge spillover network in the semiconductor industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 118, 114-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.02.011
Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: methods and application. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815478
Wu, G. J., & Tian, Z. L. (2000). Comparison of capital environment between state-owned enterprises and private enterprises. Reform, 2, 61-64.
Xiao, T. (2013). Management research of innovation technology of the small and medium-sized construction enterprises (Doctoral dissertation). Zhejiang University of Technology.
Yang, L. F., Xu, J. H., & Neuhäusler, P. (2013). Electric vehicle technology in China: An exploratory patent analysis. World Patent Information, 35(4), 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2013.06.002
Yang, R. J., & Zou, P. X. W. (2014). Stakeholder-associated risks and their interaction in complex green building projects: a social network model. Building and Environment, 73(1), 208-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.12.014
Ye, C., Yu, X., & Li, W. (2013). Empirical analysis on evolution and small world effect of Chinese enterprise – enterprise patent cooperative network: from the perspective of open innovation. Information, 4(4), 398-410. https://doi.org/10.3390/info4040398
Yoon, B., & Park, Y. (2004). A text-mining-based patent network: Analytical tool for high-technology trend. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 15(1), 37-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hitech.2003.09.003
Yoon, J., Park, H., & Kim, K. (2013). Identifying technological competition trends for R&D planning using dynamic patent maps: SAO-based content analysis. Scientometrics, 94(1), 313-331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-012-0830-6
Zhang, L., & Ashuri, B. (2018). BIM log mining: discovering social networks. Automation in Construction, 91, 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2018.03.009
Zhao, R., Zhao, L., Deng, S., & Zheng, N. (2015). Trends in patents for solar thermal utilization in China. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 852-862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.181