Share:


GISimos MCDA land suitability model for ecotourism development

Abstract

Ecotourism development planning is a multi-criteria process that generally requires spatial analysis. GISimos MCDA model developed by this study, was presented for the first time and applied to the Kalecik sub-province of Ankara, Turkey to determine the suitable areas and their suitability levels for ecotourism development. The model is based on the evaluation of sub-factors representing the topography, land cover, climate and sociocultural characteristics of the region, with the combination of GIS and the revised Simos procedure, one of the MCDA techniques. It included a series of processes such as determining the suitability rates and weights of sub-factors, calculating the Ecotourism Suitability Index values, and overlapping them using the WLC method. The resulting values were categorized as highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable areas. The results of this study and the method developed will be helpful for decision-makers and planners in the study area and similar regions.

Keyword : land suitability, multi-criteria decision analysis, MCDA, GISimos, Simos procedure, ecotourism development

How to Cite
Aşılıoğlu, F. (2021). GISimos MCDA land suitability model for ecotourism development. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 29(3), 200-214. https://doi.org/10.3846/jeelm.2021.15101
Published in Issue
Jun 16, 2021
Abstract Views
276
PDF Downloads
140
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Akpınar Külekçi, E., & Koç, A. (2020). Analysis of the areas suitable for ecotourism using Geographical Information Systems: Example of Narman District (Erzurum) Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 41(2), 293–301. https://doi.org/10.22438/jeb/41/2(SI)/JEB-03

Aliani, H., BabaieKafaky, S., Saffari, A., & Monavari, S. M. (2017). Land evaluation for ecotourism development –an integrated approach based on FUZZY, WLC, and ANP methods. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14(9), 1999-2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-017-1291-5

Alsulaihi, I. A. (2017). Developing a rating system for sustainable office buildings using Simos’ procedure. Journal of Engineering Research, 5(1), 59–88. https://kuwaitjournals.org/jer/index.php/JER/article/view/1353

Arsić, S., Nikolić, D., & Živković, Ž. (2017). Hybrid SWOT-ANPFANP model for prioritization strategies of sustainable development of ecotourism in National Park Djerdap, Serbia. Forest Policy and Economics, 80, 11–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2017.02.003

Asadpourian, Z., Rahimian, M., & Gholamrezai, S. (2020). SWOT-AHP-TOWS analysis for sustainable ecotourism development in the Best Area in Lorestan Province, Iran. Social Indicators Research, 152(1), 289–315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-020-02438-0

Balaji, K., & Senthil Kumar, V. (2018). Evaluation and selection of lean resourced employee in the manufacturing industries using the TOPSIS-Simos method. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 232(1), 162–171. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405416635069

Bali, A., Monovari, S. M., Riazi, B., Khorasani, N., & Zarkesh, M. M. K. (2015). A spatial decision support system for ecotourism development in Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests ecoregion. Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas, 21(2), 340–353. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1982-21702015000200001

Biglarfadafan, M., Danehkar, A., Pourebrahim, S., Shabani, A. A., & Moeinaddini, M. (2016). Application of strategic fuzzy assessment for environmental planning; case of bird watch zoning in wetlands. Open Journal of Geology, 6(11), 1380– 1400. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojg.2016.611099

Bunruamkaew, K., & Murayam, Y. (2011). Site suitability evaluation for ecotourism using GIS & AHP: A case study of Surat Thani province, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 21, 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.07.024

Castellanos-Verdugo, M., Vega-Vázquez, M., Oviedo-García, M. Á., & Orgaz-Agüera, F. (2016). The relevance of psychological factors in the ecotourist experience satisfaction through ecotourist site perceived value. Journal of Cleaner Production, 124, 226–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.126

Cini, F., Metastasio, R., Passafaro, P., Saayman, M., & Merwe, P. v. d. (2017). Youth and ecotourism: A road trip towards the future sustainability of natural areas. In R. H. Price (Ed.), Ecotourism and sustainable tourism: Management, opportunities and challenges (pp. 1–28). Nova Science Publishers, Inc. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314136604_Youth_and_Ecotourism_A_Road_Trip_Towards_the_Future_Sustainability_of_Natural_Areas

Cobbinah, P. B. (2015). Contextualising the meaning of ecotourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.07.015

D’Souza, C., Taghian, M., Marjoribanks, T., Sullivan-Mort, G., Manirujjaman, M., & Singaraju, S. (2019). Sustainability for ecotourism: Work identity and role of community capacity building. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(4), 533–549. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2019.1654727

Dangi, T. B., & Gribb, W. J. (2018). Sustainable ecotourism management and visitor experiences: Managing conflicting perspectives in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(3), 338–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1502250

Dashti, S., Monavari, S. M., Hosseini, S. M., Riazi, B., & Momeni, M. (2013). Application of GIS, AHP, Fuzzy and WLC in island ecotourism development (Case study of Qeshm Island, Iran). Life Science Journal, 10(1), 1274–1282. http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life1001/194_13835life1001_1274_1282.pdf

de Sousa Pereira, L., & Morais, D. C. (2020). Multicriteria decision model to establish maintenance priorities for wells in a groundwater system. Water Resources Management, 34(1), 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-019-02457-8

Dhami, I., Deng, J., Burns, R. C., & Pierskalla, C. (2014). Identifying and mapping forest-based ecotourism areas in West Virginia–Incorporating visitors’ preferences. Tourism Management, 42, 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.11.007

Du, X., & Wang, Z. (2018). Optimizing monitoring locations using a combination of GIS and fuzzy multi criteria decision analysis, a case study from the Tomur World Natural Heritage site. Journal for Nature Conservation, 43, 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2018.02.004

Figueira, J., & Roy, B. (2002). Determining the weights of criteria in the ELECTRE type methods with a revised Simos’ procedure. European Journal of Operational Research, 139(2), 317–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00370-8

Fontana, M. E., Morais, D. C., & de Almeida, A. T. (2011). A MCDM model for urban water conservation strategies adapting simos procedure for evaluating alternatives intra-criteria. In R. H. C. Takahashi, K. Deb, E. F. Wanner, & S. Greco (Eds.), Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 6576. Evolutionary multicriterion optimization (pp. 564–578). Springer.

Food and Agriculture Organization. (1976). A framework for land evaluation. FAO Soil Bulletin, No 32. http://www.fao.org/3/x5310e/x5310e04.htm#chapter%203:%20land%20suitability%20classifications

Fung, T., & Wong, F.-K. (2007). Ecotourism planning using multiple criteria evaluation with GIS. Geocarto International, 22(2), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106040701207332

Ghamgosar, M., Haghyghy, M., Mehrdoust, F., & Arshad, N. (2011). Multicriteria decision making based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in GIS for tourism. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10(4), 501–507. https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr10(4)11/14.pdf

Gigović, L., Pamučar, D., Lukić, D., & Marković, S. (2016). GISFuzzy DEMATEL MCDA model for the evaluation of the sites for ecotourism development: A case study of “Dunavski ključ” region, Serbia. Land Use Policy, 58, 348–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.07.030

Górecka, D. (2016). Using Sipres – A Fusion of the revised Simos’ procedure and Zapros – in the road route selection process. Optimum. Economic Studies, 83(5), 97–112. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=665486

Gourabi, B. R., & Rad, T. G. (2013). The analysis of ecotourism potential in Boujagh wetland with AHP method. Life Science Journal, 10(2s), 251–258. http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life1002s/044_15083life1002s_251_258.pdf

Govindan, K., Kadziński, M., & Sivakumar, R. (2017). Application of a novel PROMETHEE-based method for construction of a group compromise ranking to prioritization of green suppliers in food supply chain. Omega, 71, 129–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2016.10.004

Hidrawati, H., Normayasari, N., Sahari, S., Fyka, S. A., & Yusria, W. O. (2020). A study of the potential of ecotourism development in Konawe Islands Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. HABITAT, 31(3), 115–124. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.habitat.2020.031.3.14

Hunt, C. A., Durham, W. H., Driscoll, L., & Honey, M. (2015). Can ecotourism deliver real economic, social, and environmental benefits? A study of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(3), 339–357. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2014.965176

Jamaliah, M. M., & Powell, R. B. (2018). Ecotourism resilience to climate change in Dana Biosphere Reserve, Jordan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(4), 519–536. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1360893

Jeong, J. S., García-Moruno, L., Hernández-Blanco, J., & JaraízCabanillas, F. J. (2014). An operational method to supporting siting decisions for sustainable rural second home planning in ecotourism sites. Land Use Policy, 41, 550–560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.04.012

Jeong, J. S., & Ramírez-Gómez, Á. (2018). Development of a web graphic model with fuzzy-decision-making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory/Multi-criteria-Spatial Decision Support System (F-DEMATEL/MC-SDSS) for sustainable planning and construction of rural housings. Journal of Cleaner Production, 199, 584–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.227

Jhariya, D., Kumar, T., Gobinath, M., Diwan, P., & Kishore, N. (2016). Assessment of groundwater potential zone using remote sensing, GIS and multi criteria decision analysis techniques. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 88(4), 481–492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-016-0511-9

Jozi, S., & Majd, N. M. (2015). Ecological land capability evaluation of Dehloran county in order to ecotourism development. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 43(3), 571–581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12524-014-0427-z

Kahneman, D. (2021). Shortcomings of the AHP method. In Management for Professionals. N. Munier & E. Hontoria (Eds.), Uses and limitations of the AHP method (pp. 41–90). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60392-2_5

Kaptan Ayhan, Ç., Cengiz Taşlı, T., Özkök, F., & Tatlı, H. (2020). Land use suitability analysis of rural tourism activities: Yenice, Turkey. Tourism Management, 76, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.07.003

Karthikeyan, R., Venkatesan, K. G. S., & Chandrasekar, A. (2016). A comparison of strengths and weaknesses for analytical hierarchy process. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 9(3), 12–15. https://www.jchps.com/issues/Volume%209_Issue%203/CSE%2042.pdf

Kiper, T., Uzun, O., & Üstün Topal, T. (2018). Rural development oriented ecotourism planning on Catchment Basin Scale: The case of Pabuçdere and Kazandere Catchment Basin. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 19, 293–305. https://jast.modares.ac.ir/article-23-454-en.pdf

Lonn, P., Mizoue, N., Ota, T., Kajisa, T., & Yoshida, S. (2018). Evaluating the contribution of community-based ecotourism (CBET) to household income and livelihood changes: A case study of the Chambok CBET program in Cambodia. Ecological Economics, 151, 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.04.036

Mahdavi, A., & Niknejad, M. (2014). Site suitability evaluation for ecotourism using MCDM methods and GIS: Case studyLorestan province, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 4(6), 425–437. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.651.9497&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Mahdavi, A., Niknejad, M., & Karami, O. (2015). A fuzzy multicriteria decision method for ecotourism development locating. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 13(3), 221–236. https://cjes.guilan.ac.ir/?_action=articleInfo&article=1373

Malczewski, J. (1999). GIS and multicriteria decision analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/GIS+a nd+Multicriteria+Decision+Analysis-p-9780471329442

Marzouk, M., Nouh, A., & El-Said, M. (2014). Developing green bridge rating system using Simos’ procedure. HBRC Journal, 10(2), 176–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2013.10.001

Merad, M., Dechy, N., Serir, L., Grabisch, M., & Marcel, F. (2013). Using a multi-criteria decision aid methodology to implement sustainable development principles within an organization. European Journal of Operational Research, 224(3), 603–613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2012.08.019

Mondino, E., & Beery, T. (2019). Ecotourism as a learning tool for sustainable development. The case of Monviso Transboundary Biosphere Reserve, Italy. Journal of Ecotourism, 18(2), 107–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2018.1462371

Nahuelhual, L., Carmona, A., Lozada, P., Jaramillo, A., & Aguayo, M. (2013). Mapping recreation and ecotourism as a cultural ecosystem service: An application at the local level in Southern Chile. Applied Geography, 40, 71–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.12.004

Nino, K., Mamo, Y., Mengesha, G., & Kibret, K. S. (2017). GIS based ecotourism potential assessment in Munessa Shashemene Concession Forest and its surrounding area, Ethiopia. Applied Geography, 82, 48–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2017.02.010

Olafsdottir, G. (2013). On nature-based tourism. Tourist Studies, 13(2), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797613490370

Papathanasiou, J. (2021). An example on the use and limitations of MCDA: The case of fuzzy VIKOR. Examples and Counterexamples, 1, 100001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exco.2020.100001

Ribas, J. R., & da Silva Rocha, M. (2015). A decision support system for prioritizing investments in an energy efficiency program in Favelas in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 22(1–2), 89–99. https://doi.org/10.1002/mcda.1524

Ronizi, S. R. A., Mokarram, M., & Negahban, S. (2020). Utilizing multi-criteria decision to determine the best location for the ecotourism in the east and central of Fars province, Iran. Land Use Policy, 99, 105095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.105095

Sahani, N. (2019). Application of analytical hierarchy process and GIS for ecotourism potentiality mapping in Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22, 6187–6211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00470-w

Shanian, A., Milani, A., Carson, C., & Abeyaratne, R. (2008). A new application of ELECTRE III and revised Simos’ procedure for group material selection under weighting uncertainty. Knowledge-Based Systems, 21(7), 709–720. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2008.03.028

Siskos, E., & Tsotsolas, N. (2015). Elicitation of criteria importance weights through the Simos method: A robustness concern. European Journal of Operational Research, 246(2), 543–553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.04.037

Sriarkarin, S., & Lee, C.-H. (2018). Integrating multiple attributes for sustainable development in a national park. Tourism Management Perspectives, 28, 113–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2018.08.007

Strickland-Munro, J., & Moore, S. (2013). Indigenous involvement and benefits from tourism in protected areas: A study of Purnululu National Park and Warmun Community, Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(1), 26–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.680466

Şakar, D., Aydin, A., & Akay, A. E. (2020). Using GIS-based multicriteria decision support system for planning road networks with visual quality constraints: A case study of protected areas in Ankara, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(7), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08417-9

The International Ecotourism Society. (2019). The definition. https://ecotourism.org/what-is-ecotourism/

Tseng, M.-L., Lin, C., Lin, C.-W. R., Wu, K.-J., & Sriphon, T. (2019). Ecotourism development in Thailand: Community participation leads to the value of attractions using linguistic preferences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 231, 1319–1329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.305

Ullah, K. M., & Hafiz, R. (2014). Finding suitable locations for ecotourism development in Cox’s Bazar using Geographical Information System and Analytical Hierarchy process. Geocarto International, 29(3), 256–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2012.760005

Wishitemi, B. E. L., Momanyi, S. O., Ombati, B. G., & Okello, M. M. (2015). The link between poverty, environment and ecotourism development in areas adjacent to Maasai Mara and Amboseli protected areas, Kenya. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 306–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.07.003

Wondirad, A., Tolkach, D., & King, B. (2020). Stakeholder collaboration as a major factor for sustainable ecotourism development in developing countries. Tourism Management, 78, 104024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.104024

Yang, X., Zhao, Z., & Lu, S. (2016). Exploring spatial-temporal patterns of urban human mobility hotspots. Sustainability, 8(7), 674. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8070674

Zabihi, H., Alizadeh, M., Wolf, I. D., Karami, M., Ahmad, A., & Salamian, H. (2020). A GIS-based fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (F-AHP) for ecotourism suitability decision making: A case study of Babol in Iran. Tourism Management Perspectives, 36, 100726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100726

Zarghi, A. H., Bidkhori, A., & Hosseini, S. M. (2019). Site suitability evaluation for ecotourism using GIS & MCDM: A case study of Bazangan Lake Watershed, Iran. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 8(8), 170–181. http://jnasci.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/JNASCI-2019-170-181.pdf