Removal of cadmium from contaminated soil using iron (III) oxide nanoparticles stabilized with polyacrylic acid

    Malihe Mohamadiun Affiliation
    ; Behnaz Dahrazma Affiliation
    ; Seyed Fazlolah Saghravani Affiliation
    ; Ahmad Khodadadi Darban Affiliation


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticle, stabilized with polyacrylic acid on cadmium removal from the contaminated soils. To investigate the effect of important parameters, including nanoparticle concentration, pH, contact time, and the ratio of contaminated soil mass to nanofluid volume, several batch tests were performed. The maximum removal rate (100%) of cadmium was obtained in the following conditions: nanofluid concentration = 500 ppm, pH = 6.5, contact time = 24 hr and the ratio of contaminated soil mass (gr) to nanofluid volume (mL) = 1:150. Results of selective sequential extraction tests showed that the distribution of cadmium in different fractions of the soil was carbonates, oxides and hydroxides, residual fraction, exchangeable, and organic matter respectively. The tendency of nanoparticles for removal of Cd2+ from the soil fractions was in the order of: exchangeable > carbonates > oxides and hydroxides > organic matter > residual.

Keyword : soil contamination, iron (III) oxide nanoparticle, polyacrylic acid, cadmium removal, selective sequential extraction

How to Cite
Mohamadiun, M., Dahrazma, B., Saghravani, S., & Khodadadi Darban, A. (2018). Removal of cadmium from contaminated soil using iron (III) oxide nanoparticles stabilized with polyacrylic acid. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 26(2), 98-106.
Published in Issue
Jun 25, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Alowitz, M. J.; Scherer, M. M. 2002. Kinetics of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr (VI) reduction by iron metal, Environmental Science and Technology 36: 299–306.

Asci, Y.; Nurbas, M.; Sag Acikel, Y. 2007. Sorption of Cd (II) onto kaolin as a soil component and desorption of Cd (II) from kaolin using rhamnolipid biosurfactant, Jornal of Hazardous Materials B 139: 50–56.

Boparai, H. K.; Joseph, M.; O’Carroll, D. M. 2011. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cadmium ion removal by adsorption onto nanozerovalent iron particles, Jornal of Hazardous Materials 186: 458–465.

Bradl, H. B. 2005. Heavy Metals in the Environment, Vol. 6. University of Applied Sciences Trier Neubrucke. Germany: Elsevier Academic Press.

Cao, J. S.; Elliott, D.; Zhang, W. X. 2003. Nanoscale iron particles for perchlorate reduction, in 225th American Chemical Society National Meeting, 27 January 2003, New Orleans, LA.

Chakravarty, P.; Sen Sarmab, N.; Sarma, H. P. 2010. Biosorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution using heartwood powder of Areca catechu, Chemical Engineering Journal 162: 949–955.

Chowdhury, S.; Mishra, R.; Saha, P.; Kushwaha, P. 2011. Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of malachite green onto chemically modified rice husk, Desalination 265: 159–168.

Crane, R. A.; Scott, T. B. 2012. Nanoscale zero-valent iron: Future prospects for an emerging water treatment technology, Journal of Hazardous Materials 211–212: 112–125.

Dahrazma, B. Mulligan, C. N. 2007. Investigation of the removal of heavy metals from sediments using rhamnolipid in a continuous flow configuration, Chemosphere 69: 705–711.

Dahrazma, B.; Mulligan, C. N. 2006. Evaluation of the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sediment in continuous flow tests with selective sequential extraction, Journal of ASTM International 3: 200–209.

Di Palma, L.; Gueye, M. T.; Petrucci, E. 2015. Hexavalent chromium reduction in contaminated soil: a comparison between ferrous sulphate and nanoscale zero-valentiron, Journal of Hazardous Materials 281: 70–76.

Doelsh, E.; Moussard, G.; Macary, H. S. 2008. Fractionation of tropical soilborne heavy metals–comparison of two sequential extraction procedure, Geoderma 143: 168–179.

Ebrahimi, A.; Ehteshami, M.; Dahrazma, B. 2015. Biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solutions using Crataegus Oxyacantha stone and Punicagranatum seed, Desalination and Water Treatment 57(20): 9354–9365.

Elliott, D.; Zhang, W. X. 2001. Field assessment of nanoscale bimetallic particles for groundwater treatment, Environmental Science and Technology 35: 4922–4926.

Fan, W.; Jia, Y.; Li, X.; Jiang, W.; Lu, L. 2012. Phytoavailability and geospeciation of cadmium in contaminated soil remediated by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Chemosphere 88: 751–756.

Filgueiras, A. V.; Lavilla, I.; Bendicho, C. 2002. Chemical sequential extraction for metal partitioning in environmental solid samples, Journal of Environmentla Monitoring 4: 823–857.

Ge, F.; Li, M. M.; Ye, H.; Zhao, B. X. 2012. Effective removal of heavy metal ions Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ from aqueous solution by polymer-modified magnetic nanoparticles, Journal of Hazardous Materials 211–212: 366–372.

Giannis, A.; Gidarakos, E. 2005. Washing enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal cadmium from real contaminated soil, Journal of Hazardous Materials 123: 165–175.

Gleyzes, C.; Tellier, S.; Astruc, M. 2002. Fractionation studies of trace elements in contaminated soils and sediments: a review of sequential extraction procedures, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 21: 451–466.

Golzar, M.; Saghravani, S. F.; Azhdari Moghaddam, M. 2014. Experimental study and numerical solution of poly acrylic acid supported magnetite nanoparticles transport in a one-dimensional porous media, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Article ID 864068.

Guler, U. A. 20116. Removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions using nanoscale zero valent iron and functional pumice modified nanoscale zero valent iron, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 1–11.

Guo, X.; Wei, Z.; Wu, Q.; Li, Ch.; Qian, T.; Zheng, W. 2016. Effect of soil washing with only chelators or combining with ferric chloride on soil heavy metal removal and phytoavailability: field experiments, Chemosphere 147: 412–419.

Gzar, H. A.; Abdul-Hameed, A. S.; Younus Yahya, A. 2014. Extraction of lead, cadmium and nickel from contaminated soil using acetic acid, Journal of Soil Science 4: 207–214.

He, F.; Zhao, D. Y. 2005. Preparation and characterization of a new class of starch-stabilized biometallic nanoparticles for degration of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water, Environmental Science and Technology 39: 3314–3320.

Hetzer, A.; Daughney, C. J.; Morgan, H. W. 2006. Cadmium ion biosorption by the thermophilic bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G. thermocatenulatus, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 4020–4027.

Hseu, Z. Y. 2006. Concentration and distribution of chromium and nickel fractions along a serpentinitic toposequence, Soil Science 171(4): 341–353.

Huang, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Cao, Y. L.; Cai, C.; Zhang, Z. 2016. Behaviors of exogenous Pb in P-based Amended soil investigated with isotopic labeling method coupled with tessier approach, Geoderma 264: 126–131.

Huang, Z. Y.; Qin, D. P.; Zeng, X. C.; Li, J.; Cao, Y.; Cai, C. 2012. Species distribution and potential bioavailability of exogenous Hg (II) in vegetable-growing soil investigated with a modified tessier scheme coupled with isotopic labeling technique, Geoderma 189: 243–249.

Kanel, S. R.; Nepal, D.; Manning, B.; Choi, H. 2007. Transport of surface-modified iron nanoparticle in porous media and application to arsenic (III) remediation, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 9: 725–735.

Lao, U. L.; Chen, A.; Matsumoto, M. R.; Mulchandani, A.; Chen, W. 2007. Cadmium removal from contaminated soil by thermally responsive elastin (ELPEC20) biopolymers, Biotechnol and Bioengin 98: 349–55.

Lee, S. K.; Choi, H. S. 2001. Spectrophotometric determination of cadmium and copper with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate in nonionic tween 80 micellar media, Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 5: 463–466.

Li, J.; Sun, Y.; Yin, Y.; Ji, R.; Wu, J.; Wang, X.; Guo, H. 2010. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by autochthonous willow (Salix× aureo-pendula CL ‘J1011’) in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Journal of Hazardous Materials 181(1): 673–678.

Liu, Y. Q.; Majetic, S. A.; Lowry, G. V. 2005. TCE dechlorination rates, pathways, and efficiency of nanoscale iron particles with different properties, Environmental Science and Technology 39: 1338–1345.

Liu. H.; Chen, T.; Xie, Q.; Zou, X. 2015. The functionalization of limonite to prepare NZVI and its application in decomposition of p-nitrophenol, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 17: 374–391.

Martínez-Fernández, D.; Bingöl, D.; Komárek, M. 2014. Trace elements and nutrients adsorption onto nano-maghemite in a contaminated-soil solution: a geochemical/statistical approach, Journal of Hazardous Materials 276: 271–277.

McLaren, R. G.; Crawford, D. 1973. Studies on soil copper: the fractionation of copper in soils, Journal of Soil Science 24: 172–179.

Mulligan, C. N.; Dahrazma, B. 2003. Use of selective sequential extraction for the remediation of contaminated sediments, ASTM STP 1442: 208–223.

Nasiri, J.; Gholami, A.; Ebrahimi, P. 2013. Removal of Cadmium from soil resources using stabilized Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles, Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism 3(6): 338–341.

Nutt, M. O.; Hughes, J. B.; Wong, M. S. 2005. Designing Pd-on-Au bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts for trichloroethene hydrodechlorination, Environmental Science and Technology 39: 1346–1353.

Ozbas, E. E.; Balkaya, N. 2014. Removal of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd) from compost by molasses hydrolysate, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(4): 301–310.

Ozturk, A.; Yarci, C.; Ozyigit, I. I. 2017. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Istanbul using plant (Celtis australis L.) and soil assays, Journal of Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 38(4): 1–7.

Pandey, M.; Pandey, A. K.; Mishra, A.; Tripathi, B. D. 2015. Assessment of metal species in river Ganga sediment at Varanasi, India using sequential extraction procedure and SEM–EDS, Chemosphere 134: 466–474.

Quezada-Hinojosa, R. P.; Folkmi, K. B.; Verrecchia, E.; Adatte, T; Matera, V. 2015b. Speciation and multivariable analyses of geogenic cadmium in soils at Le Gurnigel, Swiss Jura Mountains, Catena 125: 10–32.

Quezada-Hinojosa, R.; Folkmi, K. B.; Gillet, F.; Matera, V. 2015a. Cadmium accumulation in six common plant species associated with soils containing high geogenic cadmium concentrations at Le Gurnigel Swiss Jura Mountains, Catena 124: 85–96.

Quintelas, C.; Rocha, Z.; Silva, B.; Fonseca, B.; Figueiredo, H.; Tavares, T. 2009. Removal of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Fe(III) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by an E. coli biofilm supported on kaolin, Chemical Engineering Journal 149: 319–324.

Reddy, K. R. 2010. Nanotechnology for site remediation: dehalogenation of organic pollutants in soils and groundwater by nanoscale iron particles, in 6th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, 30 Sep 2009, New Delhi, India.

Rico, M. I.; Alvarez, J. M.; Lopez-Valdivia, L. M.; Novillo, J.; Obrador, A. 2009. Manganese and Zinc in acidic agricultural soils from central Spain: distribution and phytoavailability prediction with chemical extraction tests, Soil Science 174(2): 94–104.

Shafai, SH.; Fotovat, A.; Khorasani, R. 2012. Effect of nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) on heavy metals availability in a calcareous soil, Journal of Water and Soil 26: 586–896.

Strachel, R.; Wyszkowska, J.; Baćmaga, M. 2017. The effect of nitrogen on the microbiological and biochemical properties of zinc-contaminated soil, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 25(1): 13–22.

Sun, Y. P.; Li, X. O.; Sao, J.; Zhang, W. X.; Wang, H. P. 2006. Characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 120: 47–56.

Tessier, A.; Campbell, P. G. C.; Bisson, M. 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry 51: 844–851.

Tokalioglu, S.; Kartal, S.; Birol, G. 2003. Application of a tree-stage sequential extraction procedure for the determination of extractable metal contents in highway soils, Turkish Journal of Chemistry 27: 333–346.

Tombacz, E. 2002. Adsorption from electrolyte solutions, Surfactant science series 107: 711–742.

Tombacz, E.; Majzik, A.; Horvat, Z.; Illes, E. 2006. Magnetite in aqueous medium: coating its surface and surface coated with it, Romanian Reports in physics 58(3): 281–286.

Uduma, A. U.; Jimoh, W. L. O. 2013. Sequential extraction procedure for partitioning of Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Chromium, and Zinc in contaminated Arable soils of Nigeria, American Journal of Environment, Energy and Power Research 1: 186–208.

Vasarevičius, S.; Skripkiūnas, G.; Danila, V. 2016. Experimental research into leaching of metals from immobilized CIS solar module waste, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 24(4): 269–277.

Wang, C. B.; Zhang, W. X. 1997. Synthesizing nanoscale iron particles for rapid and complete dechlorination of TCE and PCBs, Environmental Science and Technology 31: 2154–2156.

Xu, J.; Dozier, A.; Bhattacharyya, D. 2005. Synthesis of nanoscale bimetallic particles in polyelectrolyte membrane matrix for reductive transformation of halogenated organic compounds, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 7: 449–461.

Yong, R. N.; Galvez-Cloutier, R.; Phadungchewit, Y. 1993. Selective sequential extraction analysis of heavy metal retention in soil, Canadian Geotechnical Journal 30: 834–847.

Yuan, S.; Long, H.; Xie, W.; Liao, P.; Tong, M. 2012. Electrokinetic of CMC-stabilized Pd/Fe nanoparticles for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil, Geoderma 185–186: 18–25.

Zak, S.; Raukyte-Zak, T.; Laurinavicius, A. 2013. The influence of treated oleo-chemical wastewater applications on the metal speciation forms in soils, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 21 (2): 85-95.

Zaleckas, E.; Paulauskas, V.; Sendžikienė, E. 2013. Fractionation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and their removal using low-molecular-weight organic acids, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 21(3): 189–198.

Zhang, W. X. 2003. Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 5: 323–332.

Zhao, X.; Jiang, T.; Du, B. 2014. Effect of organic matter and calcium carbonate on behaviors of cadmium adsorption–desorption on/from purple paddy soils, Chemosphere 99: 41–48.