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Fortifications of the Rapallo border and their role as co-creators of space / Rapallo sienos įtvirtinimai ir jų vaidmuo kuriant erdvę

    Janez Peter Grom Affiliation
    ; Alenka Fikfak Affiliation
    ; Luka Skansi Affiliation

Abstract

In the period between the two world wars, the latent tensions between the European nations resulted in the construction of defensive positions on the borderlines of major European countries. Under the same conditions, the Italian Kingdom built an extensive fortification line, i.e. the Alpine Wall. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (SHS) replied to it with the Rupnik Line. On the base of the Treaty of Rapallo, a 289-km long demarcation line was built with an exceptional defence infrastructure, which interfered with vast natural areas of exceptional quality that are protected by various nature conservation regimes today. The research presented in this paper is focused on a specific land expropriation. The goal is to understand the historical perspectives and assess the current significance of this fortification system with its impact on the natural environment. The system of spatial assessment of the architectural, urban, regional and spatial planning aspects and landscape interpretation has been developed with the use of spatial planning mapping and other methods. It was tested on the case study of the Žiri Municipality to establish a possible systemic base on which the entirety of the Rapallo border with its defence infrastructures could be mapped and their contemporary role assessed.


Santrauka


Tarpukario laikotarpiu užslėpta įtampa tarp Europos tautų lėmė gynybinių įtvirtinimų statybas tarp didžiųjų Europos šalių teritorijų. Tokiomis aplinkybėmis Italijos karalystė statė ilgą įtvirtinimų liniją, pavadintą Alpių siena. Jugoslavijos karalystė į tai atsakė Rupniko linijos statyba. Ji atsirado remiantis Rappallo sutartimi. Tai 289 km ilgio demarkacinė linija, nužymėta išskirtine gynybine struktūra, įsiterpusia į didžiulius natūralius ypatingos vertės plotus, šiuo metu saugomus įvairiais gamtos apsaugos reglamentais. Straipsnyje pateikiamas specifinio gamtos nusavinimo tyrimas. Pristačius istorinę raidą, siekiama nustatyti gynybinių įtvirtinimų dabartinę vertę ir jų poveikį gamtinei aplinkai. Aplinkos vertinimas architektūriniu, urbanistiniu, regioniniu ir erdvės planavimo aspektais ir kraštovaizdžio interpretavimas yra atliekamas taikant erdvės planavimo analizės žemėlapiuose ir kitus metodus. Tyrimas patikrintas Žiri savivaldybės atveju, sukūrus siūlomą sisteminę bazę, kurioje galima nužymėti Rappalo sieną su jos įtvirtinimais ir įvertinti jos šiuolaikinį vaidmenį.


Reikšminiai žodžiai: Rappalo siena, Rappalo sutartis, Alpių siena, Rupniko linija, gynybiniai įtvirtinimai ir kraštovaizdis, paveldo interpretavimas, kartografijos metodas, Žiri savivaldybė, kultūros paveldo potencialas.

Keyword : Rapallo border, Treaty of Rapallo, Alpine Wall, Rupnik Line, fortification infrastructure and landscape, heritage interpretation, cartography as a method, Žiri municipality, heritage development potentials

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