Share:


Mapping knowledge management research: a bibliometric overview

    Shashi Affiliation
    ; Piera Centobelli Affiliation
    ; Roberto Cerchione Affiliation
    ; Jose M. Merigo Affiliation

Abstract

In recent years, knowledge management (KM) has consistently attained considerably growing research attention. Consequently, several literature reviews have been performed addressing different topic areas of KM. This paper seeks to present a comprehensive bibliometric and network analysis on KM to understand its development from the perspective of academic communities. Subsequently, it seeks to identify the structure of associations between prior and current themes, predict emerging trends and offer a longitudinal perspective on KM research. This study used web of science database and the initial sample was trimmed down by considering only the articles contributing to KM literature, and further 8,721 KM papers published in the last 30 years were systematically evaluated. The descriptive statistics and science mapping methods employing co-citation analysis were performed with VOSviewer software. In the descriptive analysis, we have analysed publication trends over time, geographical localization of the contributing institutions, journals, most prolific authors, top-performing institutions and most cited articles. Science mapping analysis is based on co-word analysis and co-citations analysis, namely articles’ co-citations and authors’ co-citations. The main findings of this paper will help researchers and academicians to develop knowledge in a specific sub-field by analysing the research outcomes of the papers included in the body of literature.


First published online 28 December 2021

Keyword : knowledge management, Web of Science, bibliometric analysis, network analysis, VOSviewer

How to Cite
Shashi, Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R., & Merigo, J. M. (2022). Mapping knowledge management research: a bibliometric overview. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 28(1), 239–267. https://doi.org/10.3846/tede.2021.14088
Published in Issue
Jan 12, 2022
Abstract Views
84
PDF Downloads
106
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Abbas, J., & Sağsan, M. (2019). Impact of knowledge management practices on green innovation and corporate sustainable development: A struc-tural analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 229, 611–620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.024

Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 107–136. https://doi.org/10.2307/3250961

Alexandru, V. A., Bolisani, E., Andrei, A. G., Cegarra-Navarro, J. G., Martínez Martínez, A., Paiola, M., Scarso, E., Vătămănescu, E.-M., & Zieba, M. (2019). Knowledge management approaches of small and medium-sized firms: A cluster analysis. Kybernetes, 49(1), 73–87. https://doi.org/10.1108/K-03-2019-0211

Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge transfer: A basis for competitive advantage in firms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1), 150–169. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2893

Argote, L., McEvily, B., & Reagans, R. (2003). Managing knowledge in organizations: An integrative framework and review of emerging themes. Management Science, 49(4), 571–582. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.49.4.571.14424

Asiaei, K., & Bontis, N. (2019). Translating knowledge management into performance: The role of performance measurement systems. Manage-ment Research Review, 43(1), 113–132. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-10-2018-0395

Asrar, M., & Anwar, S. (2016). A systematic review of knowledge management and knowledge sharing: Trends, issues, and challenges. Cogent Business & Management, 3(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2015.1127744

Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108

Bock, G. W., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y. G., & Lee, J. N. (2005). Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological factors, and organizational climate. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 87–111. https://doi.org/10.2307/25148669

Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innova-tion. Organization Science, 2(1), 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.40

Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (2001). Knowledge and organization: A social-practice perspective. Organization Science, 12(2), 198–213. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.12.2.198.10116

Buckley, P. J., & Carter, M. J. (1999). Managing cross-border complementary knowledge. International Studies of Management and Organiza-tion, 29(1), 80–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.1999.11656758

Buckova, B. (2017). Corporate culture as an important factor in the implementation of knowledge management. AD ALTA: Journal of Interdisci-plinary Research, 7(2), 36–39.

Buenstorf, G., & Costa, C. (2018). Drivers of spin-off performance in industry clusters: Embodied knowledge or embedded firms? Research Poli-cy, 47(3), 663–673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2018.01.015

Cabrera, A., & Cabrera, E. F. (2002). Knowledge-sharing dilemmas. Organization Studies, 23(5), 687–710. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840602235001

Cabrera, A., Collins, W. C., & Salgado, J. F. (2006). Determinants of individual engagement in knowledge sharing. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(2), 245–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500404614

Cabrera, E. F., & Cabrera, A. (2005). Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. International Journal of Human Re-source Management, 16(5), 720–735. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500083020

Cardoni, A., Zanin, F., Corazza, G., & Paradisi, A. (2020). Knowledge management and performance measurement systems for SMEs’ economic sustainability. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(7), 2594. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072594

Castagna, F., Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R., Esposito, E., Oropallo, E., & Passaro, R. (2020). Customer knowledge management in SMEs facing digital transformation. Sustainability, 12(9), 3899. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093899

Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R., Esposito, E., & Shashi. (2019). The mediating role of knowledge exploration and exploitation for the development of an entrepreneurial university. Management Decision, 57(12), 3301–3320. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-11-2018-1240

Cerchione, R., Centobelli, P., Zerbino, P., & Anand, A. (2020). Back to the future of Knowledge Management Systems off the beaten paths. Man-agement Decision, 58(9), 1953–1984. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-11-2019-1601

Chai, K., & Xiao, X. (2012). Understanding design research: A bibliometric analysis of design studies (1996–2010). Design Studies, 33(1), 24–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2011.06.004

Chiu, C. M., Hsu, M. H., & Wang, E. T. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1872–1888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2006.04.001

Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393553

Cook, S. D., & Brown, J. S. (1999). Bridging epistemologies: The generative dance between organizational knowledge and organizational know-ing. Organization Science, 10(4), 381–400. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.4.381

Cummings, J. N. (2004). Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization. Management Science, 50(3), 352–364. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1030.0134

Davenport, T. H., De Long, D. W., & Beers, M. C. (1998). Successful knowledge management projects. Sloan Management Review, 39(2), 43–57.

Davenport, T. H., & Klahr, P. (1998). Managing customer support knowledge. California Management Review, 40(3), 195–208. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165950

Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Harvard Business Press.

De Long, D. W., & Fahey, L. (2000). Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management. Academy of Management Perspectives, 14(4), 113–127. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2000.3979820

Durst, S., Hinteregger, C., & Zieba, M. (2019). The linkage between knowledge risk management and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 105, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.08.002

Dyer, J. H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high‐performance knowledge‐sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Manage-ment Journal, 21(3), 345–367. 3.0.CO;2-N> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(200003)21:3<345::AID-SMJ96>3.0.CO;2-N

Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (1998). The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 660–679. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.1255632

Endres, H., Helm, R., & Dowling, M. (2020). Linking the types of market knowledge sourcing with sensing capability and revenue growth: Evi-dence from industrial firms. Industrial Marketing Management, 90, 30–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2020.06.004

Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669

Grant, R. M. (1996). Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: Organizational capability as knowledge integration. Organization Sci-ence, 7(4), 375–387. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.7.4.375

Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (2000a). Knowledge flows within multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 21(4), 473–496. 3.0.CO;2-I> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(200004)21:4<473::AID-SMJ84>3.0.CO;2-I

Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (2000b). Knowledge management’s social dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel. Sloan Management Review, 42(1), 71. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/knowledge-managements-social-dimension-lessons-from-nucor-steel/

Hamel, G. (1991). Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12(S1), 83–103. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250120908

Hansen, M. T. (1999). The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits. Administrative Sci-ence Quarterly, 44(1), 82–111. https://doi.org/10.2307/2667032

Hansen, M. T. (2002). Knowledge networks: Explaining effective knowledge sharing in multiunit companies. Organization Science, 13(3), 232–248. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.13.3.232.2771

Hendriks, P. (1999). Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing. Knowledge & Process Management, 6, 91–100. 3.0.CO;2-M> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1441(199906)6:2<91::AID-KPM54>3.0.CO;2-M

Holsapple, C. W. (2005). The inseparability of modern knowledge management and computer-based technology. Journal of Knowledge Manage-ment, 9(1), 42–52. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270510582956

Hsu, M. H., Ju, T. L., Yen, C. H., & Chang, C. M. (2007). Knowledge sharing behavior in virtual communities: The relationship between trust, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65(2), 153–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.09.003

Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88–115. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.88

Inkinen, H. (2016). Review of empirical research on knowledge management practices and firm performance. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(2), 230–257. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-09-2015-0336

Inkpen, A. C., & Tsang, E. W. (2005). Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 146–165. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2005.15281445

Ipe, M. (2003). Knowledge sharing in organizations: A conceptual framework. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4), 337–359. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484303257985

Jiang, J., Woosnam, K. M., & Draper, J. (2014). Structural elements of articles and diachronous citation analysis among top-ranking tourism jour-nals (1990–2010). Tourism Management Perspectives, 12, 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2014.06.004

Kaklauskas, A., & Kanapeckiene, L. (2005). Knozwledge management and “BRITA in PuBs” project [Žinių valdymas ir “BRITA in PuBs” pro-jektas]. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 11(2), 78–86. https://doi.org/10.3846/13928619.2005.9637685

Kankanhalli, A., Tan, B. C., & Wei, K. K. (2005). Contributing knowledge to electronic knowledge repositories: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 113–143. https://doi.org/10.2307/25148670

Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3(3), 383–397. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.3.3.383

Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1993). Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation. Journal of International Busi-ness Studies, 24(4), 625–645. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248

Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1996). What firms do? Coordination, identity, and learning. Organization Science, 7(5), 502–518. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.7.5.502

Kuah, C. T., & Wong, K. Y. (2011). Knowledge management performance measurement: A review. African Journal of Business Management, 5(15), 6021–6027.

Lane, P. J., & Lubatkin, M. (1998). Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning. Strategic Management Journal, 19(5), 461–477. 3.0.CO;2-L> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199805)19:5<461::AID-SMJ953>3.0.CO;2-L

Lee, H., & Choi, B. (2003). Knowledge management enablers, processes, and organizational performance: An integrative view and empirical ex-amination. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(1), 179–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2003.11045756

Leonard-Barton, D. (1991). The factory as a learning laboratory (Harvard Business School Working Paper, 92-023).

Levin, D. Z., & Cross, R. (2004). The strength of weak ties you can trust: The mediating role of trust in effective knowledge transfer. Management Science, 50(11), 1477–1490. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1030.0136

Lin, H. F. (2007a). A stage model of knowledge management: an empirical investigation of process and effectiveness. Journal of Information Sci-ence, 33(6), 643–659. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551506076395

Lin, H. (2007b). Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: an empirical study. International Journal of Manpower, 28(3/4), 315–332. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720710755272

Lin, Y. C., & Ha, N.-H. (2015). The framework for KM implementation in product and service oriented SMEs: Evidence from field studies in Taiwan. Sustainability, 7(3), 2980–3000. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7032980

Lönnqvist, A. (2017). Embedded knowledge management: Towards improved managerial relevance. Knowledge Management Research and Prac-tice, 15(2), 184–191. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41275-017-0053-y

López-Torres, G. C., Garza-Reyes, J. A., Maldonado-Guzmán, G., Kumar, V., Rocha-Lona, L., & Cherrafi, A. (2019). Knowledge management for sustainability in operations. Production Planning and Control, 30(10–12), 813–826. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2019.1582091

Maghssudipour, A., Lazzeretti, L., & Capone, F. (2020). The role of multiple ties in knowledge networks: Complementarity in the Montefalco wine cluster. Industrial Marketing Management, 90, 667–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2020.03.021

March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.71

Mariani, M., & Borghi, M. (2019). Industry 4.0: A bibliometric review of its managerial intellectual structure and potential evolution in the service industries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 149, 119752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119752

McCain, K. W. (1990). Mapping authors in intellectual space: A technical overview. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41, 433–443. 3.0.CO;2-Q> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(199009)41:6<433::AID-ASI11>3.0.CO;2-Q

McDermott, R., & O’Dell, C. (2001). Overcoming cultural barriers to sharing knowledge. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1), 76–85. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270110384428

Merigó, J. M., Pedrycz, W., Weber, R., & de la Sotta, C. (2018). Fifty years of information sciences: A bibliometric overview. Information Scienc-es, 432, 245–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2017.11.054

Miklosik, A., Evans, N., Hasprova, M., & Lipianska, J. (2019). Reflection of embedded knowledge culture in communications of Australian com-panies. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 17(2), 172–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/14778238.2018.1538602

Mowery, D. C., Oxley, J. E., & Silverman, B. S. (1996). Strategic alliances and interfirm knowledge transfer. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 77–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250171108

Mulet-Forteza, C., Genovart-Balaguer, J., Mauleon-Mendez, E., & Merigó, J. M. (2019). A bibliometric research in the tourism, leisure and hospi-tality fields. Journal of Business Research, 101, 819–827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.12.002

Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.533225

Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Belknap Press, Cambridge.

Neves, S. M., & Da Silva, C. E. S. (2016). Risk management applied to Software development projects in incubated technology-based companies: Literature review, classification, and analysis. Gestao e Producao, 23(4), 798–814. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-530x472-15

Nonaka, I. (1991). The knowledge creating company. Harvard Business Review, 69(6), 96–104.

Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14–37. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.5.1.14

Nonaka, I., & Konno, N. (1998). The concept of “Ba”: Building a foundation for knowledge creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 40–54. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165942

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford Uni-versity Press.

Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., & Konno, N. (2000). SECI, Ba and leadership: A unified model of dynamic knowledge creation. Long Range Planning, 33(1), 5–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-6301(99)00115-6

O’Dell, C., & Grayson, C. (1998). If only we knew what we know: Identification and transfer of internal best practices. California Management Review, 40, 154–174. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165948

Osterloh, M., & Frey, B. S. (2000). Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms. Organization Science, 11(5), 538–550. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.5.538.15204

Polanyi, M (1958). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. University of Chicago Press.

Polanyi, M. (1966). The tacit dimension. Doubleday.

Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116–145. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393988

Raudeliūnienė, J., Davidavičienė, V., & Petrusevičius, R. (2018). Factors influencing knowledge retention process: Case of Lithuanian armed forc-es. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 24(3), 1104–1124. https://doi.org/10.3846/20294913.2017.1309598

Reagans, R., & McEvily, B. (2003). Network structure and knowledge transfer: The effects of cohesion and range. Administrative Science Quar-terly, 48(2), 240–267. https://doi.org/10.2307/3556658

Riege, A. (2005). Three‐dozen knowledge‐sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(3), 18–35. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270510602746

Simonin, B. L. (1999). Ambiguity and the process of knowledge transfer in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 20(7), 595–623. 3.0.CO;2-5> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199907)20:7<595::AID-SMJ47>3.0.CO;2-5

Small, H. (1973). Co-citation in the scientific literature: A new measure of the relationship between two documents. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 24, 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.4630240406

Spender, J. C. (1996). Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 45–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250171106

Sulistio, E. R., & Dianawati, W. (2020). Environmental innovation as mediation: Knowledge management and firm performance. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 13(4), 592–609. https://www.ijicc.net/images/vol_13/Iss_4/13455_Sulistio_2020_E_R.pdf

Szulanski, G. (1996). Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 27–43. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250171105

Szulanski, G. (2000). The process of knowledge transfer: A diachronic analysis of stickiness. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Pro-cesses, 82(1), 9–27. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2884

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533. 3.0.CO;2-Z> https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199708)18:7<509::AID-SMJ882>3.0.CO;2-Z

Trujillo, C. M., & Long, T. M. (2018). Document co-citation analysis to enhance transdisciplinary research. Science Advances, 4(1), e1701130. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1701130

Tsai, A. (2016). The effects of innovation by inter-organizational knowledge management. Information Development, 32(5), 1402–1416. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266666915603440

Tsai, W. (2001). Knowledge transfer in intraorganizational networks: Effects of network position and absorptive capacity on business unit innova-tion and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 996–1004. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069443

Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464–476. https://doi.org/10.2307/257085

Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: The paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1), 35–67. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393808

Van Den Hooff, B., & De Ridder, J. A. (2004). Knowledge sharing in context: The influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6), 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270410567675

Van den Hooff, B., & van Weenen, F. L. (2004). Committed to share: Commitment and CMC use as antecedents of knowledge sharing. Knowledge Process Management, 11(1), 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1002/kpm.187

Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2014). Visualizing bibliometric networks. In Y. Ding, R. Rousseau, & D. Wolfram (Eds.), Measuring scholarly impact: Methods and practice. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10377-8_13

Von Krogh, G. (1998). Care in knowledge creation. California Management Review, 3, 133–153. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165947

Wang, Q., & Waltman, L. (2016). Large-scale analysis of the accuracy of the journal classification systems of Web of Science and Scopus. Journal of Informetrics, 10(2), 347–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2016.02.003

Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.10.001

Wasko, M. M., & Faraj, S. (2000). It is what one does: Why people participate and help others in electronic communities of practice. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 9(2–3), 155–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8687(00)00045-7

Wasko, M. M., & Faraj, S. (2005). Why should I share? Examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 35–57. https://doi.org/10.2307/25148667

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250050207

Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. J. (2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6–7), 587–613. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.183

Zack, M. H. (1999). Developing a knowledge strategy. California Management Review, 41(3), 125–145. https://doi.org/10.2307/41166000

Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185–203. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2002.6587995

Zander, U., & Kogut, B. (1995). Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: An empirical test. Organiza-tion Science, 6(1), 76–92.

Zhang, J., Wu, W. P., & Chen, R. (2018). Leveraging channel management capability for knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in an emerging market: A moderated mediation model. Industrial Marketing Management, 75, 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2018.05.004