A critical review of legal issues and solutions associated with building information modelling
Although there are many discussions of the legal implications of BIM, none of the studies provides a comprehensive review of the legal issues associated with BIM; nor do they evaluate the solutions currently available to address the issues. This paper aims to provide a critical review of the legal issues arising from using BIM and of their associated solutions. A systematic review was conducted of fifty-five (55) journal articles and conference papers published from 2007 to 2017 to identify the legal issues. The identified legal issues were then analysed in relation to the solutions provided by the construction industry. The results of the study revealed that (1) an alternative project delivery approach that does not modify the original orientation of the design-bid-build procurement structure is required to deliver BIM effectively. (2) The potential change in the standard of care for project participants due to additional roles required in delivering BIM needs further investigation. (3) The roles for auditing a BIM delivery system must be included in the contracts to ensure the quality and compliance of BIM deliverables. The study not only reviews the legal issues associated with BIM, but more importantly, it also offers significant insights for future research.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ahn, Y. H., Kwak, Y. H., & Suk, S. J. (2015). Contractors’ transformation strategies for adopting building information modeling. Journal of Management in Engineering, 32(1), 05015005. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000390
AIA Document E203TM-2013. (2013). Building information modelling and digital data exhibit. Published by The American Institute of Architects, United States.
Alreshidi, E., Mourshed, M., & Rezgui, Y. (2017). Factors for effective BIM governance. Journal of Building Engineering, 10, 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2017.02.006
Al-Shammari, M. A. (2014). An appraisal of the protocol that was published by the construction industry council (CIC) to facilitate the use of building information modelling (BIM) on projects. In Proceedings 30th Annual ARCOM Conference (pp. 623-632). Portsmouth, UK.
Arensman, D. B., & Ozbek, M. E. (2012). Building information modelling and potential legal issues. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, 8, 146-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/15578771.2011.617808
Ashcraft, H. (2008). Building information modeling: a framework for collaboration. Construction Lawyer, 28(3), 1-14.
Australian Construction Industry Forum (ACIF). (2014). A framework for the adoption of project team integration and building information modelling. Paper presented at Strategic Forum for the Australasian Building and Construction Industry. Australian Procurement and Construction Council, Australia.
Azhar, S., Nadeem, A., Mok, Y. N. J., & Leung, H. Y. B. (2008). Building Information Modelling (BIM): a new paradigm for Visual interactive modelling and simulation for construction projects. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries “Advancing and Integrating Construction Education, Research and Practice” (pp. 435-446). Karachi, Pakistan.
Bataw, A. (2013). Making BIM a realistic paradigm rather than just another fad. In ARCOM Doctoral Workshop (pp. 11-21). Birmingham City University, UK.
Bosch-Sijtsema, P., Isaksson, A., Lennartsson, M., & Linderoth, H. C. (2017). Barriers and facilitators for BIM use among Swedish medium-sized contractors – “We wait until someone tells us to use it”. Visualization in engineering, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40327-017-0040-7
C191. (2009). Standard form multi-party agreement for integrated project delivery. The American Institute of Architects, USA.
Chao-Duivis, M. A. B. (2011). Some legal aspects of BIM in establishing collaborative relationship. International Construction Law Review, 28(3), 264-275.
Chew, A., & Riley, M. (2013). What is going on with BIM? The Way to 6D. The International Construction Law Review, 53-265.
Chong, H. Y., Fan, S. L., Sutrisna, M., Hsieh, S. H., & Tsai, C. M. (2017). Preliminary contractual framework for BIM-Enabled projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 143(7), 04017025. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001278
CIC. (2013a). CIC BIM Protocol. Construction Industry Council, United Kingdom.
CIC. (2013b). Best practice guide for professional indemnity insurance when using building information models. Construction Industry Council, United Kingdom.
ConsensusDocs 300. (2007). Standard Multi-Party Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) Agreement. ConsensusDocs, United States.
ConsensusDocs 301. (2008). Building Information Modelling (BIM) Addendum. ConsensusDocs, United States.
CCP. (2013). Contract for complex projects. Chartered Institute of Building, United Kingdom.
Davies, K., Davies, K., McMeel, D. J., McMeel, D. J., Wilkinson, S., & Wilkinson, S. (2017). Making friends with Frankenstein: hybrid practice in BIM. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 24(1), 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-04-2015-0061
Eadie, R., Odeyinka, H., Browne, M., McKeown, C., Odeyinka, H., & McNiff, S. (2013). BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: an analysis. Automation in Construction, 36, 145-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2013.09.001
Eadie, R., Odeyinka, H., Browne, M., McKeown, C., & Yohanis, M. (2014). Building information modelling adoption: an analysis of the barriers to implementation. Journal of Engineering and Architecture, 2(1), 77-101.
Elhag, T., & Al-Sharifi, M. (2014). The viability of BIM for UK contractors. Paper presented at Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction in a Changing World. Heritance Kandalama, Sri Lanka.
Elmualim, A., & Gilder, J. (2013). BIM: Innovation in Design Management, influence and challenges of implementation. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 10(34), 183-199.
Enegbuma, W. I., Ologbo, A. C., Aliagha, U. G., & Ali, K. N. (2014). Preliminary study impact of building information modelling use in Malaysia. In IFIP International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management (pp. 51-62). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Enegbuma, W. I., & Ali, K. N. (2011). A preliminary critical success factor Analysis of Building Information Modelling (BIM) implementation in Malaysia. Paper presented a Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Real Estate (ACRE 2011): Sustainable Growth, Management Challenges. Thistle Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
Fan, S. L. (2014). Intellectual property rights in building information modelling application in Taiwan. Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 140(3), 04013058, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000808
Fenice Investments Inc. v Jerram Falkus Construction. (2009). EWHC 3272 (TCC).
Foster, L. L. (2008). Legal issues and risks associated with building information modelling technology (Master thesis). University of Kansas, the United States.
Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Tookey, J., Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Naismith, N., Azhar, S., Efimova, O., & Raahemifar, K. (2017). Building Information Modelling (BIM) uptake: clear benefits, understanding its implementation, risks and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 75, 1046-1053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.083
Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91-108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x
Greenwood, D., Lewis, S., & Lockley, S. (2010). Contractual issues in the total use of Building information modelling. Proceeding: W113 – Special Track 18th CIB World Building Congress. Salford, United Kingdom.
Gu, N., Singh, V., London, K., Brankovic, L. L., & Taylor, C. (2008). Adopting Building Information Modeling (BIM) as collaboration platform in the design industry. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research. Asia, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Gu, N., London, K. (2010). Understanding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC industry. Automation in Construction, 19, 988-999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2010.09.002
Hamdi, O., & Leite, F. (2013). Conflicting side of building information modeling implementation in the construction industry. Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, 6(3), 03013004. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)LA.1943-4170.0000137
Haynes, D. (2009). Reflections on some legal and contractual implications of building information modeling (BIM). Construction Watch, 2(9), 1-9.
Holzer, D. (2007). Are you talking to me? Why BIM alone is not the answer? Paper presented at International Conference on Association of Architecture Schools Australasia. School of Architecture, University of Technology, Sidney, Australia.
Hossain, M. K., Munns, A., & Rahman, M. M. (2013). Enhancing team integration in Building Information Modelling (BIM) projects. Paper presented at ARCOM Doctoral Workshop on BIM Management and Interoperability. Birmingham, UK.
Hsieh, T. Y., Yeh, F., & Hsu, K. M. (2012). Legal risks incurred under the application of BIM in Taiwan. 14th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. Moscow, Russia.
Hsu, K. M., Hsieh, T. Y., & Chen, J. H. (2015). Legal risks incurred under the application of BIM in Taiwan. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Forensic Engineering, 168(3), 127-133. https://doi.org/10.1680/feng.14.00005
Jones, B. (2014). Integrated project delivery (IPD) for maximizing design and construction considerations regarding sustainability. Procedia Engineering, 95, 528-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.214
Joyce, R., & Houghton, D. (2014). Briefing: building information modelling and the law. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Management, Procurement and Law, 167(3), 114-116. https://doi.org/10.1680/mpal.14.00012
Ku, K. H., & Taiebat, M. (2011). BIM experiences and expectations: the constructors’ perspective. International Journal of Construction Education and Research, 7(3), 175-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/15578771.2010.544155
Ku, K., & Pollalis, S. N. (2009). Contractual standards for enhanced geometry control in model-based collaboration. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 14, 366-384.
Kuiper, I., & Holzer, D. (2013). Rethinking the contractual context for Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Australian built environment industry. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 13(4), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.5130/ajceb.v13i4.3630
Kurul, E., Abanda, H., Tah, J., & Cheung, F. (2013). Rethinking the build process for BIM adoption. Paper presented at CIB World Building Congress. Brisbane, Australia.
Lahdenperä, P. (2012). Making sense of the multi-party contractual arrangements of project partnering, project alliancing and integrated project delivery. Construction Management and Economics, 30(1), 57-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2011.648947
Laishram, B. (2013). Building Information Modeling in public private partnership projects – perspectives and hurdles. Paper presented at International Conference on Structural Engineering Construction and Management. Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Larson, D. A., & Golden, K. A. (2007). Entering the brave new world: an introduction to contracting for BIM. William Mitchell Law Review, 34(1), 75-108.
Lee, J. D., Wang, Y. H., Lin, C. W., Lin, H. H. (2013). Information value of patent litigation and industry competition in Taiwan. Technological and Economic Development of Economy 19(4), 593-605. https://doi.org/10.3846/20294913.2013.837109
Li, H., Arditi, D., & Wang, Z. (2013). Factors that affect transaction costs in construction projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(1), 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000573
Liu, Y., Van Nederveen, S., & Hertogh, M. (2017). Understanding effects of BIM on collaborative design and construction: an empirical study in China. International Journal of Project Management, 35(4), 686-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.06.007
Lowe, R. H., & Muncey, J. M. (2009). The ConsensusDOCS 301 BIM Addendum. Construction Lawyer, 29(1), 1-9.
Mahamadu, A. M., Mahdjoubi, L., & Booth, C. (2013). Challenges to BIM-Cloud integration: implication of security issues on secure collaboration. IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science, 2, 209-214.
Manderson, A., Jefferies, & Brwer, G. (2015). Building Information Modelling and standardised construction contracts: a content analysis of the GC21 contract. Construction Economics and Building, 15(3), 72-84. https://doi.org/10.5130/AJCEB.v15i3.4608
McAdam, B. (2010). Building Information Modelling: the UK legal context. International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, 2(3), 246-259. https://doi.org/10.1108/17561451011087337
Mehran, D. (2016). Exploring the adoption of BIM in the UAE construction industry for AEC firms. Procedia Engineering, 145, 1110-1118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.144
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS med, 6(7), e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
Mordue, S., Swaddle, P., & Philp, D. (2015). BIM for Dummie. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Mosey, D. (2009). Early contractor involvement in building procurement: contracts, partnering and project management. UK: John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444309867
Ngo, M. H. (2012). UK construction industry’s responses to government construction strategy BIM deadline and applications to civil engineering education. Paper presened at First Civil and Environmental Engineering Student Conference. Imperial College London, UK.
Olatunji, O. A. (2011). A preliminary review on the legal implications of BIM and model ownership. Journal of Information Technology in Construction, 16, 687-696.
Olatunji, O. A. (2014). Views on Building Information Modelling, procurement and contract management. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Management, Procurement and Law, 167(3), 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1680/mpal.13.00011
Palos, S., Kiviniemi, A., & Kuusisto, J. (2013). Future perspectives on product data management in building information modeling. Construction Innovation, 14(1), 52-68. https://doi.org/10.1108/CI-12-2011-0080
Pandey, A., Shahbodaghlou, F., & Burger, J. (2016). Legal and contractual challenges of Building Information Modeling – designers’ perspectives. In Construction Research Congress (pp. 519-527). American Society of Civil Engineers.
Parmigiani, A., & Rivera-Santos, M. (2011). Clearing a path through the forest: a meta-review of inter organizational relationships. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1108-1136. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311407507
PAS1192-2. (2013). Specification for information management for the capital/delivery phase of construction projects using building information modelling. BSI Standards Limited 2013, London, the UK.
PPC 2000. (2000). Standard form of contract for project partnering. Association of Consultant Architects and Association for Consultancy and Engineering, UK.
Redmond, A., Hore, A., & West, R. (2010). Developing a Cloud integrated life cycle costing analysis model through BIM. Paper presented at CIB W78 2011: Computer Knowledge Building. Sophia Antipolis, France.
Rogers, J., Chong, H. Y., Preece, C. (2015). Adoption of building information modelling technology (BIM) perspectives from Malaysian engineering consulting services firms. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 22(4), 424-445. https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-05-2014-0067
Sankaran, B., O’Brien, W. J., Goodrum, P. M., Khwaja, N., Leite, F. L., & Johnson, J. (2016). Civil integrated management for highway infrastructure: case studies and lessons learned. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2573, 10-17. https://doi.org/10.3141/2573-02
Sebastian, R. (2010). Breaking through business and legal barriers of open collaborative processes based on Building Information Modelling (BIM). Paper presented at Proceeding: W113 – Special Track 18th CIB World Building Congress. Salford, UK.
Sebastian, R. (2011). Changing roles of the clients, architects and contractors through BIM. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 18(2), 176-187. https://doi.org/10.1108/09699981111111148
Simonian, L., & Korman, T. (2010). Legal considerations in the United States associated with Building information modeling. The Construction, Building and Real Estate Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, RICS COBRA. Dauphine Université Paris, France.
Smith, P. (2014). BIM Implementation-Global Strategies. Creative Construction Conference, Procedia Engineering, 85, 482-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.575
Sun, C., Jiang, S., Skibniewski, M. J., Man, Q., & Shen, L. (2017). A literature review of the factors limiting the application of BIM in the construction industry. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 23(5), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3846/20294913.2015.1087071
Udom, K. (2013). The CIC BIM Protocol – a critical analysis. NBS. Retrieved from https://www.thenbs.com/knowledge/the-cic-bim-protocol-a-critical-analysis
Walasek, D., & Barszcz, A. (2017). Analysis of the adoption rate of Building Information Modeling [BIM] and its Return on Investment [ROI]. Procedia Engineering, 172, 1227-1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.02.144
Wang, G. B., Duan, X. R., & Lei, W. (2011). Research on some critical problems of contracting for Building Information Model. Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), Xianning University, China.
Yaakob, M., Wan, W. N. A., & Radzuan, K. (2016). Critical success factors to implementing Building Information Modeling in Malaysia construction industry. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(8S), 252-256.