Share:


Total impact evaluation of transportation systems

    József Rohács Affiliation
    ; Dániel Rohács Affiliation

Abstract

Impact assessment, in general, includes the environmental safety and security considerations, and cost/cost-benefit analysis of the used sources. As usual, the impact is evaluated at two levels: (1) impact during operation (usage) related to a chosen operational unit (e.g., running distance [km], operational time [h] or calendar time [h]), (2) the life-cycle (project life-cycle) impact. The environmental impact is characterized by the chemical and noise emissions. Safety and security are estimated by risks. Costs are calculated based on the required financial support and caused losses. All these calculations are related to the individual vehicles or vehicles with average behaviours. The investigation of sustainability impact requires a wider evaluation and approach, for example, by also including production and recycling beside the operational aspects. This paper generalizes the impact analysis. At first, it considers all types of impacts including the direct (e.g., accidents) and indirect long-term effects (e.g., health problems caused by emissions). All the impacts are expressed as costs. The defined Sustainable Transportation Performance Index (STPI) is the Total Life-Cycle Cost (TLCC) related to the unit of transport work. As such, it combines the life-cycle emissions evaluation and transport costing methods. It contains the total operational and total impact costs. The proposed approach introduces three new specific features in the impact analysis: (1) the impact is evaluated on the transportation system level, (2) the impact is estimated as the total value (including all the related sub-systems and elements, like vehicles, transport infrastructure, transport flow control, etc.), (3) proposes a unique index to describe the total impact. The paper describes the general equations and the developed methodology for the estimation of the total impact and analyses its applicability. The preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the defined index and its evaluation methodology. It also shows the limitations of traditional cost models. Further test results and wider application of the methodology will be provided in a series of follow up papers by the research team.

Keyword : total impacts, transportation means, safety, security, emission, noise, external costs

How to Cite
Rohács, J., & Rohács, D. (2020). Total impact evaluation of transportation systems. Transport, 35(2), 193-202. https://doi.org/10.3846/transport.2020.12640
Published in Issue
May 11, 2020
Abstract Views
891
PDF Downloads
373
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Anas, A.; Lindsey, R. 2011. Reducing urban road transportation externalities: road pricing in theory and in practice, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 5(1): 66–88. https://doi.org/10.1093/reep/req019

Asiedu, Y.; Gu, P. 1998. Product life cycle cost analysis: state of the art review, International Journal of Production Research 36(4): 883–908. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075498193444

Baninster, D.; Stead, D. 2002. Reducing transport intensity, European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research 2(4): 161–178. https://doi.org/10.18757/ejtir.2002.2.4.3721

Bicsák, G.; Hornyák, A.; Veress, Á. 2010. Numerical simulation of combustion processes in a gas turbine, AIP Conference Proceedings 1493: 140–148. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4765482

Buchanan, J. M.; Stubblebine, W. C. 1962. Externality, Economica 29(116): 371–384. https://doi.org/10.2307/2551386

Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Bierkens, J; Int Panis, L. 2014. Health and environmental benefits related to electric vehicle introduction in EU countries, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 33: 26–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.09.002

Chester, M. V.; Horvath, A. 2009. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains, Environmental Research Letters 4(2): 024008. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024008

CORDIS. 2006. HEATCO: Developing Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment. 6th RTD Framework Programme. Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS). Available from Internet: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/502481

Csikós, A.; Varga, I.; Hangos, K. M. 2015. Modeling of the dispersion of motorway traffic emission for control purposes, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 58: 598–616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2015.03.027

De Ceuster, G.; Van Herbruggen, B.; Logghe, S.; Proost, S. 2004. TREMOVE 2.2: Model and Baseline Description. Report for European Commission. Service Contract B4-3040/2002/342069/MAR/C.1. 156 p. Available from Internet: https://www.asser.nl/upload/eel-webroot/www/documents/TREMOVEreport.Pdf

Demir, E.; Bektaş, T.; Laporte, G. 2011. A comparative analysis of several vehicle emission models for road freight transportation, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 16(5): 347–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2011.01.011

Dobranskyte-Niskota, A. M.; Perujo, A.; Jesinghaus, J.; Jensen, P. 2009. Indicators to Assess Sustainability of Transport Activities. Part 2: Measurement and Evaluation of Transport Sustainability Performance in the EU27. EUR 23041 EN/2. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, European Commission. 88 p. https://doi.org/10.2788/46618

Dobranskyte-Niskota, A. M.; Perujo, A.; Pregl, M. 2007. Indicators to Assess Sustainability of Transport Activities. Part 1: Review of the Existing Transport Sustainability Indicators Initiatives and Development of an Indicator Set to Assess Transport Sustainability Performance. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, European Commission. EUR 23041 EN. 59 p. https://doi.org/10.2788/54736

EC. 2011. White Paper: Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System. European Commission (EC). 31 p. Available from Internet: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0144&qid=1588424022750&from=EN

Edenhofer, O.; Pichs-Madruga, R.; Sokona, Y.; Farahani, E.; Kadner, S.; Seyboth, K.; Adler, A.; Baum, I.; Brunner, S.; Eickemeier, P.; Kriemann, B.; Savolainen, J.; Schlömer, S.; Von Stechow, C.; Zwickel, T.; Minx J. C. (Eds.). 2014. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1454 p. Available from Internet: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3

EU. 2016. Statistical Pocketbook 2016: EU Transport in Figures. Publications Office of the European Union (EU), Luxembourg. 160 p. Available from Internet: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/facts-fundings/statistics/pocketbook-2016_en

Furch, J. 2016. A model for predicting motor vehicle life cycle cost and its verification, Transactions of FAMENA 40(1): 15–26.

Gasser, M.; Riediker, M.; Mueller, L.; Perrenoud, A.; Blank, F.; Gehr, P.; Rothen-Rutishauser, B. 2009. Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro, Particle and Fibre Toxicology 6: 30. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-6-30

Gudmundsson, H. 2001. Indicators and performance measures for transportation, environment and sustainability in North America, Research Notes from NERI 148: 1–87. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Aarhus University, Denmark. Available from Internet: https://www.dmu.dk/1_vi-den/2_publikationer/3_arbrapporter/rapporter/ar148.pdf

Hellgren, J. 2007. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020, Energy Policy 35(1): 39–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2005.10.004

Horvath, A.; Matthews, H. S. 2005. Sustainability of transportation and other infrastructure systems, Journal of Infrastructure Systems 11(1): 1–1. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0342(2005)11:1(1)

Jalonen, R.; Salmi, K. 2009. Safety Performance Indicators for Maritime Safety Management: Literature Review. Report No TKK-AM-9. Helsinki University of Technology, Finland. 63 p. Available from Internet: https://www.merikotka.fi/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/TKK-AM-9-1.pdf

Jun, H. K.; Kim, J. H. 2007. Life cycle cost modeling for railway vehicle, in 2007 International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 8–11 October 2007, Seoul, South Korea, 1989–1994.

Kinzhikeyev, S.; Wangai, A.W.; Kale, U. 2017. Influence of state management on environment sustainability, in Materials of International Practical Science Conference “Ualikhanov Readings – 21”, 21 April 2017, Kokshetau, Kazakhstan, 6: 189–197.

Litman, T. A. 2009. Sustainable transportation indicators: a recommended research program for developing sustainable transportation indicators and data, in Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting, 11–15 January 2009, Washington, DC, US, 1–14.

Maibach, M.; Schreyer, C.; Sutter, D.; Van Essen, H. P.; Boon, B. H.; Smokers, R.; Schroten, A.; Doll, C.; Pawlowska, B.; Bak, M. 2008. Handbook on Estimation of External Costs in the Transport Sector. Produced within the Study Internalisation Measures and Policies for All external Cost of Transport (IM-PACT). Version 1.1. CE Delft, The Netherlands. 336 p. Available from Internet: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/themes/sustainable/doc/2008_costs_handbook.pdf

Messagie, M.; Lebeau, K.; Coosemans, T.; Macharis, C.; Van Mierlo, J. 2013. Environmental and financial evaluation of passenger vehicle technologies in Belgium, Sustainability 5(12): 5020–5033. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5125020

Michelberger, P.; Nádai, L. 2010. Development strategy for sustainable transportation: towards intelligent systems, Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering 38(2): 99–104. https://doi.org/10.3311/pp.tr.2010-2.07

Norris, G. A. 2001. Integrating life cycle cost analysis and LCA, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 6(2): 118–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977849

Ntziachristos, L.; Gkatzoflias, D.; Kouridis, C.; Samaras, Z. 2009. COPERT: a European road transport emission inventory model, in I. N. Athanasiadis, A. E. Rizzoli, P. A. Mitkas, J. M. Gómez (Eds.). Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering. Environmental Science and Engineering, 491–504. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-88351-7_37

OECD. 2018. OECD Environmental Data and Indicators. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Available from Internet: http://www.oecd.org/env/indicators-modelling-outlooks/data-and-indicators.htm

Profillidis, V. A.; Botzoris, G. N.; Galanis, A. T. 2014. Environmental effects and externalities from the transport sector and sustainable transportation planning – a review, International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 4(4): 647–661.

Rigo, N.; Hekkenberg, R.; Ndiaye, A. B.; Hadhazi, D.; Simongati, G.; Hargitai, C. 2007. Performance assessment for intermodal chains, European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research 7(4): 283–300. https://doi.org/10.18757/ejtir.2007.7.4.3400

Rohacs, D.; Rohacs, J. 2016. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study – GABRIEL concept), Progress in Aerospace Sciences 85: 33–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paerosci.2016.06.001

Rohacs, D.; Voskuijl, M.; Rohacs, J.; Schoustra, R.-J. 2013. Preliminary evaluation of the environmental impact related to aircraft take-off and landings supported with ground based (MAGLEV) power, Journal of Aerospace Operations 2(3–4): 161–180. https://doi.org/10.3233/AOP-140040

Rohacs, J. 2010. Evaluation of the air transport efficiency definitions and their impact on the European personal air transportation system development, Transactions of the Institute of Aviation 205: 14–32.

Rohacs, J. 2005. Transportation – determining strategic element of the economy – characterization of recent and future, in Transport Means 2005: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, 20–21 October 2005, Kaunas, Lithuania, 195–198.

Rohács, J.; Simongáti, G. 2007. The role of inland waterway navigation in a sustainable transport system, Transport 22(3): 148–153. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2007.9638117

Samaras, C.; Meisterling, K. 2008. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy, Environmental Science & Technology 42(9): 3170–3176. https://doi.org/10.1021/es702178s

Santero, N.; Masanet, E.; Horvath, A. 2010. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: a Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research. Prepared with the support of the Portland Cement Association through the Department of Energy under Contract No DE-AC02-05CH11231. University of California, US. 88 p. Available from Internet: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8632v9cc

Santos, G.; Behrendt, H.; Maconi, L.; Shirvani, T.; Teytelboym, A. 2010. Part I: externalities and economic policies in road transport, Research in Transportation Economics 28(1): 2–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2009.11.002

Simongáti, G. 2010. Multi-criteria decision making support tool for freight integrators: selecting the most sustainable alternative, Transport 25(1): 89–97. https://doi.org/10.3846/transport.2010.12

Smit, R.; Ntziachristos, L.; Boulter, P. 2010. Validation of road vehicle and traffic emission models – a review and meta-analysis, Atmospheric Environment 44(25): 2943–2953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.05.022

Tánczos, K.; Török, Á. 2006. Estimation method for emission of road transport, Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering 34(1–2): 93–100.

Tanczos, K.; Torok, A. 2007. The linkage between climate change and energy consumption of Hungary in the road transportation sector, Transport 22(2): 134–138. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2007.9638111

Upham, P.; Raper, D.; Thomas, C.; McLellan, M.; Lever, M.; Lieuwen, A. 2004. Environmental capacity and European air transport: stakeholder opinion and implications for modelling, Journal of Air Transport Management 10(3): 199–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2003.10.016

Van Essen, H.; Scroten, A.; Otten, M.; Sutter, D.; Schreyer, C.; Zandonella, R.; Maibach, M.; Doll, C. 2008. External Costs of Transport in Europe: Update Study for 2008. CE Delft, The Netherlands. 163 p. Available from Internet: http://www.cer.be/sites/default/files/publication/2312_External_Costs_update_study_FINAL.pdf

Van Essen, H.; Van Wijngaarden, L.; Schroten, A.; Sutter, D.; Bieler, C.; Maffii, S.; Brambilla, M.; Fiorello, D.; Fermi, F.; Parolin, R.; El Beyrouty, K. 2019. Handbook on the External Costs of Transport. Version 2019. CE Delft, The Netherlands. 351 p. https://doi.org/10.2832/27212

WCED. 1987. Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Oxford University Press. 383 p.

WRI. 2018. CAIT Climate Data Explorer. World Resources Institute (WRI), Washington, DC, US. Available from Internet: http://cait.wri.org