Modelling rail thermal differentials due to bending and defects
Rail foot flaws have the potential to cause broken rails that can lead to derailment. This is not only an extremely costly issue for a rail operator in terms of damage to rolling stock, but has significant flow-on effects for network downtime and a safe working environment. In Australia, heavy haul operators run up to 42.5 t axle loads with trains in excess of 200 wagons and these long trains produce very large cyclic rail stresses. The early detection of foot flaws before a broken rail occurs is of high importance and there are currently no proven techniques for detecting rail foot flaws on trains at normal running speeds. This paper shall focus on the potential use of thermography as a detection technique and begin investigating the components of heat transfer in the rail to determine the viability of thermography for detecting rail foot flaws. The paper commences with an introduction to the sources of heat generation in the rail and modelling approaches for the effects of bending, natural environmental factors and transverse defects. It concludes with two theoretical case studies on heat generated due to these sources and discusses how they may inform the development of a practical thermography detection methodology.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Alahakoon, S.; Sun, Y. Q.; Spiryagin, M.; Cole, C. 2018. Rail flaw detection technologies for safer, reliable transportation: a review, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control 140(2): 020801. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4037295
ARTC. 2019. Ultrasonic Testing By Continuous Rail Flaw Detection Vehicle. ETE-01-02. Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC). Infrastructure Standards: ARTC Extranet. 12 p. Available from Internet: https://extranet.artc.com.au/docs/eng/track-civil/procedures/rail/ETE-01-02.pdf
AS 1085.1-2002. Railway Track Material. Part 1: Steel Rails.
ATSB. 2015. Derailment of freight train 6DA2 near Marryat, South Australia, on 26 July 2014. ATSB Transport Safety Report – Rail Occurrence Investigation RO-2014-014. Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB). 24 p. Available from Internet: https://www.atsb.gov.au/publications/investigation_reports/2014/rair/ro-2014-014
Bartoli, I.; Lanza di Scalea, F.; Fateh, M.; Viola, E. 2005. Modeling guided wave propagation with application to the long-range defect detection in railroad tracks, NDT & E International 38(5): 325–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2004.10.008
Campos-Castellanos, C.; Gharaibeh, Y.; Mudge, P.; Kappatos, V. 2011. The application of long range ultrasonic testing (LRUT) for examination of hard to access areas on railway tracks, in 5th IET Conference on Railway Condition Monitoring and Non-Destructive Testing (RCM 2011), 29–30 November 2011, Derby, UK, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2011.0618
Cerniglia, D.; Pantano, A.; Vento, M. A. 2012. Guided wave propagation in a plate edge and application to NDI of rail base, Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31(3): 245–252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10921-012-0139-7
Chen, L.; Liang, Y.; Wang, K. 2010. Inspection of rail surface defect based on machine vision system, in The 2nd International Conference on Information Science and Engineering, 4–6 December 2010, Hangzhou, China, 3793–3796. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICISE.2010.5691348
Christides, S.; Barr, A. D. S. 1984. One-dimensional theory of cracked Bernoulli–Euler beams, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 26(11–12): 639–648. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(84)90017-1
CI TS. 2011. Derailment Freight Train Warracknabeal. Rail Safety Investigation Report No 2011/07. Office of the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety (CI TS), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 28 p.
DelaCalle, F. J.; Garcia, D. F.; Usamentiaga, R. 2017. Inspection system for rail surfaces using differential images, in 2017 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 1–5 October 2017, Cincinnati, OH, US 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2017.8101824
Deutschl, E.; Gasser, C.; Niel, A.; Werschonig, J. 2004. Defect detection on rail surfaces by a vision based system, in IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2004, 14–17 June 2004, Parma, Italy, 507–511. https://doi.org/10.1109/IVS.2004.1336435
FLIR. 2016. Infrared Cameras with MSX®: FLIR Ex-Series. FLIR® Systems, Inc. Available from Internet: https://www.flir.com/instruments/ex-series
Green, R. E. 2004. Non-contact ultrasonic techniques, Ultrasonics 42(1–9): 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2004.01.101
Greene, R. J.; Yates, J. R.; Patterson, E. A. 2007. Crack detection in rail using infrared methods, Optical Engineering 46(5): 051013. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2738490
Grosse, C. U.; Ohtsu, M. 2008. Acoustic Emission Testing: Basics for Research – Applications in Civil Engineering. Springer. 406 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69972-9
Hay, W. W. 1953. Railroad Engineering. Volume 1. Wiley. 483 p.
Hayashi, T.; Song, W.-J.; Rose, J. L. 2003. Guided wave dispersion curves for a bar with an arbitrary cross-section, a rod and rail example, Ultrasonics 41(3): 175–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-624X(03)00097-0
Hernandez, F. C. R.; Koch, K.; Barrera, G. P. 2007. Rail Base Corrosion Detection and Prevention. TCRP Web-Only Document 37. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP), Transportation Research Board (TRB), Washington, DC, US. 129 p. https://doi.org/10.17226/22009
Jindal, U. C. 2012. Strength of Materials. Pearson India. 800 p.
Kenderian, S.; Djordjevic, B. B.; Cerniglia, D.; Garcia, G. 2006. Dynamic railroad inspection using the laser-air hybrid ultrasonic technique, Insight – Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring 48(6): 336–341. https://doi.org/10.1784/insi.2006.48.6.336
Kesler, K.; Zhang, Y.-J. 2007. System and Method for Predicting Future Rail Temperature. US20070265780A1. Available from Internet: https://patents.google.com/patent/US20070265780
Krautkramer, J.; Krautkramer, H. 1990. Ultrasonic Testing of Materials. Springer. 677 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-10680-8
Maldague, X. P. V. 2002. Introduction to NDT by active infrared thermography, Materials Evaluation 60(9): 1060–1073.
Moustakidis, S.; Kappatos, V.; Karlsson, P.; Selcuk, C.; Gan, T.-H.; Hrissagis, K. 2014. An intelligent methodology for railways monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves, Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33(4): 694–710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10921-014-0264-6
Nippon Steel. 2019. Rails. Nippon Steel Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. 16 p. Available from Internet: https://www.nipponsteel.com/product/catalog_download/pdf/K003en.pdf
Michaels, D. 2014. Understanding Rail Flaws: Identification of Common Rail Flaws. Nordco, Inc. 97 p.
Papaelias, M. P.; Roberts, C.; Davis, C. L. 2008. A review on non-destructive evaluation of rails: state-of-the-art and future development, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit 222(4): 367–384. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544097JRRT209
Papaelias, M. P.; Lugg, M. C.; Roberts, C.; Davis, C. L. 2009. High-speed inspection of rails using ACFM techniques, NDT & E International 42(4): 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2008.12.008
Peng, D.; Jones, R. 2013. Lock-in thermographic inspection of squats on rail steel head, Infrared Physics & Technology 57: 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2012.12.010
Peng, J.; Tian, G.; Wang, L.; Gao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z. 2014. Rolling contact fatigue detection using eddy current pulsed thermography, in 2014 IEEE Far East Forum on Nondestructive Evaluation/Testing, 20–23 June 2014, Chengdu, China, 176–180. https://doi.org/10.1109/FENDT.2014.6928257
Petcher, P. A.; Potter, M. D. G.; Dixon, S. 2014. A new electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) design for operation on rail, NDT & E International 65: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.03.007
NSW Transport RailCorp. 2012. TMC 226: Rail Defects Handbook. Version 1.2. New South Wales (NSW) Department of Transport, Sydney, Australia. 83 p. Available from Internet: https://www.transport.nsw.gov.au/industry/asset-standardsauthority/find-a-standard/rail-defects-handbook-12
Scruby, C. B.; Drain, L. E. 1990. Laser Ultrasonics Techniques and Applications. CRC Press. 462 p.
Sinha, J. K.; Friswell, M. I.; Edwards, S. 2002. Simplified models for the location of cracks in beam structures using measured vibration data, Journal of Sound and Vibration 251(1): 13–38. https://doi.org/10.1006/jsvi.2001.3978
Spiryagin, M.; Cole, C.; Sun, Y. Q.; McClanachan, M.; Spiryagin, V.; McSweeney, T. 2014. Design and Simulation of Rail Vehicles. CRC Press. 337 p. https://doi.org/10.1201/b17029
Tian, G. Y.; Gao, Y.; Li, K.; Wang, Y.; Gao, B.; He, Y. 2016. Eddy current pulsed thermography with different excitation configurations for metallic material and defect characterization, Sensors 16(6): 843. https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060843
Wilson, J.; Tian, G.; Mukriz, I.; Almond, D. 2011. PEC thermography for imaging multiple cracks from rolling contact fatigue, NDT & E International 44(6): 505–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ndteint.2011.05.004
Yang, R.; He, Y.; Gao, B.; Tian, G. Y.; Peng, J. 2015. Lateral heat conduction based eddy current thermography for detection of parallel cracks and rail tread oblique cracks, Measurement 66: 54–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.01.024
Yi, Z.; Wang, K.; Kang, L.; Zhai, G.; Wang, S. 2010. Rail flaw detection system based on electromagnetic acoustic technique, in 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 15–17 June 2010, Taichung, Taiwan, 211–215. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIEA.2010.5516784
Yu, H.; Jeong, D. 2012. Railroad tie responses to directly applied rail seat loading in ballasted tracks: a computational study, in 2012 Joint Rail Conference, 17–19 April 2012, Philadelphia, PA, US, 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1115/JRC2012-74149
Zhang, Y.-J.; Lee, S. 2008. Modeling rail temperature with realtime weather data, in Fourth National Conference on Surface Transportation Weather; Seventh International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, 16–19 June 2008, Indianapolis, IN, US, 37–48.