The evaluation of redundancy for road traffic networks
This paper presents two redundancy indices for road traffic network junctions and also an aggregated network redundancy index. The proposed redundancy indices could be implemented to identify optimal design alternatives during the planning stage of the network junctions whereas the aggregated network redundancy index could assess the best control and management policies under disruptive events. Furthermore, effective measures of network redundancy are important to policy makers in understanding the current resilience and future planning to mitigate the impacts of greenhouse gases. The proposed junction indices cover the static aspect of redundancy, i.e. alternative paths, and the dynamic feature of redundancy reflected by the availability of spare capacity under different network loading and service level. The proposed redundancy indices are based on the entropy concept, due to its ability to measure the system configuration in addition to being able to model the inherent uncertainty in road transport network conditions. Various system parameters based on different combinations of link flow, relative link spare capacity and Relative Link Speed (RLS) were examined. However, the two redundancy indices developed from the combined RLS and relative link spare capacity showed strong correlation with junction delay and volume capacity ratio of a synthetic road transport network of Delft city. Furthermore, the developed redundancy indices responded well to demand variation under the same network conditions and supply variations. Another case study on Junction 3A in M42 motorway near Birmingham demonstrated that the developed redundancy index is able to reflect the impact of the Active Traffic Management (ATM) scheme introduced in 2006.
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