Share:


Evaluating the effectiveness of speed reduction markings in highway tunnels

    Hongliang Wan Affiliation
    ; Zhigang Du Affiliation
    ; Qixiang Yan Affiliation
    ; Xiaohong Chen Affiliation

Abstract

As typical weak visual reference systems, highway tunnels have low illumination, monotonous environment and few references, which may cause severe visual illusion and reduce drivers’ speed perception ability. Thus, drivers tend to underestimate their driving speed, which may induce speeding behaviours that result in rear-end collisions. The cost-effective pavement markings installed on both sides of the lane or shoulder may make drivers overestimate their speed. This perception can help ensure safe driving and regulate driving behaviour effectively. This study analyses the effects of sidewall markings in typical low luminance highway tunnels, specifically observing how their angles and lengths affect the driver’s speed perception. A three-dimensional model of highway tunnels was built in a driving simulator. Psychophysical tests of speed perception were carried out by the method of limits. The simulation tests studied the Stimulus of Subjectively Equal Speed (SSES) and reaction time in relation to sidewall markings with different angles. Furthermore, based on the optimal angle, the effects of sidewall marking with different lengths on speed perception were also analysed. The test results reveal that the angle and length of sidewall markings have a significant impact on the driver’s SSES and reaction time. Moreover, the level of speed overestimation decreases with the increase of angle or length of sidewall marking. As the angle of sidewall marking gradually increases, the maximum reaction time first increases and then decreases. Within the angle of sidewall marking of 15°, the subjects have the highest speed overestimation and an easy speed judgment. This may due to Zöllner illusion, the driver’s perception of lane width shrinks may induce deceleration behaviour.

Keyword : traffic safety, highway tunnel, speed perception, reaction time, stimulus of subjectively equal speed

How to Cite
Wan, H., Du, Z., Yan, Q., & Chen, X. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness of speed reduction markings in highway tunnels. Transport, 33(3), 647-656. https://doi.org/10.3846/transport.2018.1574
Published in Issue
Jul 10, 2018
Abstract Views
113
PDF Downloads
144
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Anton-Erxleben, K.; Herrmann, K.; Carrasco, M. 2013. Independent effects of adaptation and attention on perceived speed, Psychological Science 24(2): 150–159. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612449178

Carmel, D.; Saker, P.; Rees, G.; Lavie, N. 2007. Perceptual load modulates conscious flicker perception, Journal of Vision 7(14): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1167/7.14.14

Castet, E.; Lorenceau, J.; Shiffrar, M.; Bonnet, C. 1993. Perceived speed of moving lines depends on orientation, length, speed and luminance, Vision Research 33(14): 1921–1936. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(93)90019-S

Charlton, S. G. 2007a. Delineation effects in overtaking lane design, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 10(2): 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2006.09.003

Charlton, S. G. 2007b. The role of attention in horizontal curves: a comparison of advance warning, delineation, and road marking treatments, Accident Analysis & Prevention 39(5): 873–885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2006.12.007

Denton, G. G. 1980. The influence of visual pattern on perceived speed, Perception 9(4): 393–402. https://doi.org/10.1068/p090393

Ding, H.; Zhao, X.; Rong, J.; Ma, J. 2015. Experimental research on the effectiveness and adaptability of speed reduction markings in downhill sections on urban roads: a driving simulation study, Accident Analysis & Prevention 75: 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.11.018

Domenichini, L.; La Torre, F.; Vangi, D.; Virga, A.; Branzi, V. 2017. Influence of the lighting system on the driver’s behavior in road tunnels: a driving simulator study, Journal of Transportation Safety & Security 9(2): 216–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/19439962.2016.1173155

Drakopoulos, A.; Vergou, G. 2003. Evaluation of the Converging Chevron Pavement Marking Pattern at One Wisconsin Location. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, DC, US. 21 p. Available from Internet: https://www.aaafoundation.org/evaluation-converging-chevron-pavement-marking-pattern-one-wisconsin-location

Du, Z.; Zheng, Z.; Zheng, M.; Ran, B.; Zhao, X. 2014. Drivers’ visual comfort at highway tunnel portals: A quantitative analysis based on visual oscillation, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 31: 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.05.012

Galante, F.; Mauriello, F.; Montella, A.; Pernetti, M.; Aria, M.; D’Ambrosio, A. 2010. Traffic calming along rural highways crossing small urban communities: driving simulator ex periment, Accident Analysis & Prevention 42(6): 1585–1594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.03.017

Gates, T.; Qin, X.; Noyce, D. 2008. Effectiveness of experimental transverse-bar pavement marking as speed-reduction treatment on freeway curves, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2056: 95–103. https://doi.org/10.3141/2056-12

Georges, S.; Seriès, P.; Frégnac, Y.; Lorenceau, J. 2002. Orientation dependent modulation of apparent speed: psychophysical evidence, Vision Research 42(25): 2757–2772. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(02)00303-6

Gilmore, D.; Bauer, K.; Torbic, D.; Kinzel, C.; Frazier, R. 2013. Treatment effects and design guidance for high- to low-speed transition zones for rural highways, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2348: 47–57. https://doi.org/10.3141/2348-06

Godley, S. T.; Triggs, T. J.; Fildes, B. N. 2002. Driving simulator validation for speed research, Accident Analysis & Prevention 34(5): 589–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(01)00056-2

Godley, S. T.; Triggs, T. J.; Fildes, B. N. 2000. Speed reduction mechanisms of transverse lines, Transportation Human Factors 2(4): 297–312. https://doi.org/10.1207/STHF2-4_1

Guidelines for Design of Lighting of Highway Tunnels. 2014. Professional standard of the People’s Republic of China (in Chinese).

Guo, X. 2006. Research on Characteristics of the Driver’s Pupil and Eye Fixation Point and Its Distribution at the Tunnel Entrance and Exit Based on Experiment: MSc dissertation, Tongji University, Shanghai, China (in Chinese).

Guo, X.; Yang, Z. 2004. Experimental Psychology. Peoples Education Press (in Chinese).

Hunter, M.; Boonsiripant, S.; Guin, A.; Rodgers, M.; Jared, D. 2010. Evaluation of effectiveness of converging chevron pavement markings in reducing speed on freeway ramps, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2149: 50–58. https://doi.org/10.3141/2149-06

Lewis-Evans, B.; Charlton, S. G. 2006. Explicit and implicit processes in behavioural adaptation to road width, Accident Analysis & Prevention 38(3): 610–617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2005.12.005

Manser, M. P.; Hancock, P. A. 2007. The influence of perceptual speed regulation on speed perception, choice, and control: Tunnel wall characteristics and influences, Accident Analysis & Prevention 39(1): 69–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2006.06.005

Park, E. S.; Carlson, P. J.; Porter, R. J.; Andersen, C. K. 2012. Safety effects of wider edge lines on rural, two-lane highways, Accident Analysis & Prevention 48: 317–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.01.028

Prinzmetal, W.; Beck, D. M. 2001. The tilt-consistency theory of visual illusions, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27(1): 206–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.27.1.206

Recarte, M. A.; Nunes, L. M. 1996. Perception of speed in an automobile: estimation and production, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 2(4): 291–304. http://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.2.4.291

Retting, R.; McGee, H.; Farmer, C. 2000. Influence of experimental pavement markings on urban freeway exit-ramp traffic speeds, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1705: 116–121. https://doi.org/10.3141/1705-17

Ryan, J.; Zanker, J. M. 2001. What determines the perceived speed of dots moving within apertures?, Experimental Brain Research 141(1): 79–87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210100848

Shaughnessy, J. J.; Zechmeister, E. B.; Zechmeister, J. S. 2014. Research Methods in Psychology. 10th edition. McGraw-Hill Education. 512 p.

Shen, H.; Shimodaira, Y.; Ohashi, G. 2005. Speed-tuned mechanism and speed perception in human vision, Systems and Computers in Japan 36(13): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/scj.20369

Technical Standard of Highway Engineering. 2014. Professional standard of the People’s Republic of China (in Chinese).

Wan, H.; Du, Z.; Ran, B.; Wang, M. 2015. Speed control method for highway tunnel safety based on visual illusion, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2485: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3141/2485-01

Wan, H.; Du, Z.; Yan, Q. 2016. The speed control effect of highway tunnel sidewall markings based on color and temporal frequency, Journal of Advanced Transportation 50(7): 1352–1365. https://doi.org/10.1002/atr.1405

Weafer, J.; Fillmore, M. T. 2015. Alcohol-related cues potentiate alcohol impairment of behavioral control in drinkers, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 29(2): 290–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000013

Wenderoth, P.; Burke, D. 2006. Testing the tilt-constancy theory of visual illusions, Perception 35(2): 201–213. https://doi.org/10.1068/p5388

Xia, Z.; Lv, Y.; Pan, X.; Chen, F.; Xu, M.; Wu, G.; Feng, D. 2017. Research on design pattern of city tunnel side wall based on the driver visual effect, Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation 484: 689–701. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41682-3_58

Yeung, J. S.; Wong, Y. D.; Xu, H. 2013. Driver perspectives of open and tunnel expressways, Journal of Environmental Psychology 36: 248–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.09.002

Zhang, L.-X.; Liu, T.; Pan, F.-Q.; Liu, R.-C. 2014. Analysis of effects of driver factors on road traffic accident indexes, China Safety Science Journal 24(5): 79–84. (in Chinese).