Link performance functions for high occupancy vehicle lanes of freeways
High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are widely used on freeways and play an important role in network design and management. Likewise, link performance functions serve as an essential tool for transport system analysis. This paper aims to support network analysis by providing a tailored link performance function for HOV lanes contiguous with general motor lanes on freeways. Specifically, real traffic data is used for model calibration and evaluation that was assembled from the Performance Measurement System (PeMS) maintained by the California Department of Transportation. Three alternative models for link performance functions of HOV lanes on freeways are developed, which take traffic performance on both HOV lanes and adjacent sets of general motor lanes into consideration. To calibrate the parameters of the models, linear regression is made through stepwise and enter methods and nonlinear regression is carried out using sequential quadratic programming. Statistical analysis together with an evaluation using real traffic data is conducted to evaluate the validity of the proposed models. Our results show that all the three proposed models for contiguous HOV lanes on freeways are statistically significant and perform better in representing real traffic condition with regards to a traditional link performance function, with one specific nonlinear model best supported.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Boriboonsomsin, K.; Barth, M. 2008. Impacts of freeway high-occupancy vehicle lane configuration on vehicle emissions, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 13(2): 112–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2008.01.001
Boriboonsomsin, K.; Barth, M. 2007. Evaluating air quality benefits of freeway high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Southern California, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2011: 137–147. https://doi.org/10.3141/2011-15
CDoT. 2014. Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). California Department of Transportation (CDoT), Sacramento, CA, US. Available from Internet: http://pems.dot.ca.gov
Chen, J.; Li, Z.; Wang, W.; Jiang, H., 2016. Evaluating bicycle–vehicle conflicts and delays on urban streets with bike lane and on-street parking, Transportation Letters: the International Journal of Transportation Research (Latest Articles) 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/19427867.2016.1207365
Chen, W.; Chen, B. 2003. Introducing the HOV priority concept into Chinese traffic planning and management, City Planning Review 27(6): 93–96. (in Chinese). https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1002-1329.2003.06.023
Chow, J.; Lee, G.; Yang, I. 2010. Genetic algorithm to estimate cumulative prospect theory parameters for selection of high-occupancy-vehicle lane, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2157: 71–77. https://doi.org/10.3141/2157-09
Daganzo, C. F.; Cassidy, M. J. 2008. Effects of high occupancy vehicle lanes on freeway congestion, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 42(10): 861–872. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2008.03.002
Dahlgren, J. 1998. High occupancy vehicle lanes: not always more effective than general purpose lanes, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 32(2): 99–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(97)00021-9
FHWA. 2016. Federal-Aid Highway Program Guidance on High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Washington, DC, US, 42 p. Available from Internet: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freewaymgmt/hovguidance
Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Rodrigues, H.; Bandeira, J. M.; Pereira, S. R.; Khattak, A. J.; Coelho, M. C. 2014. Are HOV/eco-lanes a sustainable option to reducing emissions in a medium-sized European city?, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 63: 93–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2014.03.002
Hans, E.; Chiabaut, N.; Leclercq, L. 2015. Applying variational theory to travel time estimation on urban arterials, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 78: 169–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2015.04.004
Highway Capacity Manual. 2010. Transportation Research Board. 5th edition. 1650 p.
Highway Capacity Manual. 2000. Transportation Research Board. 1134 p.
Jang, K.; Oum, S.; Chan, C.-Y. 2012. Traffic characteristics of high-occupancy vehicle facilities: comparison of contiguous and buffer-separated lanes, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2278: 180–193. https://doi.org/10.3141/2278-20
Jou, R.-C.; Weng, M.-C.; Chen, C.-C. 2005. The evaluation of high occupancy vehicle lanes on Sun Yat-Sen freeway in Taiwan, Journal of Advanced Transportation 39(2): 169–193. https://doi.org/10.1002/atr.5670390204
Khoo, H. L.; Teoh, L. E.; Meng, Q. 2014. A bi-objective optimization approach for exclusive bus lane selection and scheduling design, Engineering Optimization 46(7): 987–1007. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2013.812728
Kim, E. J. 2000. HOT Lanes: a Comparative Evaluation of Costs, Benefits and Performance. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, US. 288 p.
Krimmer, M.; Venigalla, M. 2006. Measuring impacts of high-occupancy-vehicle lane operations on light-duty-vehicle emissions: experimental study with instrumented vehicles, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1987: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3141/1987-01
Kwon, J.; Varaiya, P. 2008. Effectiveness of California’s high occupancy vehicle (HOV) system, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 16(1): 98–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2007.06.008
Lee, W.-H.; Tseng, S.-S.; Shieh, W.-Y. 2010. Collaborative real-time traffic information generation and sharing framework for the intelligent transportation system, Information Sciences 180(1): 62–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2009.09.004
Li, P.-F.; Han, S.; Lin, H.-F. 2007. The application of HOV lane in Shanghai urban traffic management, Traffic & Transportation 12: 54–57. (in Chinese).
Lu, Z.; Meng, Q.; Gomes, G. 2016. Estimating link travel time functions for heterogeneous traffic flows on freeways, Journal of Advanced Transportation 50(8): 1683–1698. https://doi.org/10.1002/atr.1423
Matas, A.; Raymond, J.-L.; Ruiz, A. 2012. Traffic forecasts under uncertainty and capacity constraints, Transportation 39(1): 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-011-9325-1
Montgomery, D. C.; Peck, E. A.; Vining, G. G. 2012. Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. 5th edition. Wiley. 672 p.
Nie, X.; Zhang, H. M. 2005. Delay-function-based link models: their properties and computational issues, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 39(8): 729–751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2004.10.002
Norusis, M. J. 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion. Addison Wesley. 464 p.
Plotz, J.; Konduri, K.; Pendyala, R. 2010. To What extent can high-occupancy vehicle lanes reduce vehicle trips and congestion? Exploratory analysis using national statistics, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2178: 170–176. https://doi.org/10.3141/2178-19
Pulugurtha, S. S.; Pasupuleti, N. 2010. Assessment of link reliability as a function of congestion components, Journal of Transportation Engineering 136(10). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000156
Qi, X.; Wu, G.; Boriboonsomsin, K.; Barth, M. J. 2016. Empirical study of lane-changing characteristics on high-occupancy-vehicle facilities with different types of access control based on aerial survey data, Journal of Transportation Engineering 142(1). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000803
Roess, R. P.; Prassas, E. S.; McShane, W. R. 2010. Traffic Engineering. 4th edition. Pearson. 744 p.
Schrank, D.; Lomax, T. 2005. The 2005 Urban Mobility Report. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, US. 28 p.
Seber, G. A. F.; Wild, C. J. 2003. Nonlinear Regression. Wiley-Interscience. 768 p.
Shewmake, S. 2012. Can carpooling clear the road and clean the air? Evidence from the literature on the impact of HOV lanes on VMT and air pollution, Journal of Planning Literature 27(4): 363–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412212451028
Shewmake, S.; Jarvis, L. 2014. Hybrid cars and HOV lanes, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 67: 304–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2014.07.004
Sisiopiku, V. P.; Cavusoglu, O.; Sikder, S. H. 2010. High occupancy vehicle lane performance assessment through operational, environmental impacts and cost-benefit analyses, in Spring-Sim’10: Proceedings of the 2010 Spring Simulation Multiconference, 11–15 April 2010, Orlando, Florida, US. https://doi.org/10.1145/1878537.1878596
Thomas, J.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Arasan, V. T. 2012. Vehicle class wise speed-volume models for heterogeneous traffic, Transport 27(2): 206–217. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2012.697442
Wang, R. 2011. Shaping carpool policies under rapid motorization: the case of Chinese cities, Transport Policy 18(4): 631–635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2011.03.005
Wang, T. 2010. Operational Characteristic of Bus and General Vehicle in Urban Roads. PhD Dissertation. Southeast University, China. (in Chinese).
Zhang, X.; Wang, W.; Chen, S.; Li, Z. 2013. Research on the link travel time model for high occupancy vehicle lanes of freeways, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 96: 1728–1737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.196