A review of the criteria of the prediction of students’ creative skills in the visual arts education

    Kani Ulger   Affiliation


This study aimed to predict the creativity in the painting area of students in visual arts education. This study reviews conducted on the publications. In this review, eight categories were classified related to the creativity by a hierarchical method as follows: definition, components, assessment, measurement, criteria, tests, scoring, and the art. According to the content analysis, the categories were originality, fluency, flexibility, boundary-breaking independent, unconventionality, and perspective which were determined as universal criteria for general content regarding creativity measurement. However, the aesthetic, technical skill, imagination, elaboration, closure, and idea generation were identified as specific criteria for the creativity measurement regarding the painting in the visual arts education. This review study indicated that the creative skills of students in the visual arts education can be predicted by the criteria in which a combination of the universal and specific criteria inclusively.


Šiame tyrime siekiama numatyti vizualiųjų menų studijų studentų kūrybiškumą tapybos srityje. Šio tyrimo apžvalgos skelbiamos publikacijose. Šioje apžvalgoje hierarchiniu metodu išskiriamos tokios aštuonios kūrybiškumo kategorijos: apibrėžtis, komponentai, vertinimas, matavimas, kriterijai, testai, rezultatų sumavimas ir menas. Remiantis turinio analize, išskiriamos kategorijos – originalumas, sklandumas, lankstumas, ribų peržengimas neatsižvelgiant į aplinkybes, netradiciškumas ir perspektyva; vertinant kūrybiškumą jos buvo apibrėžtos kaip universalūs bendrieji kriterijai. Vis dėlto estetiniai, techniniai įgūdžiai, vaizduotė, tobulinimas, uždarumas ir idėjų kūrimas laikomi specifiniais kriterijais, matuojant tapybinį kūrybiškumą vizualinio meninio ugdymo srityje. Šis apžvalginis tyrimas atskleidė, kad studentų vizualinio meninio ugdymo kūrybinius gebėjimus galima numatyti remiantis abiejų – universalių ir specifinių – kriterijų deriniu.

Reikšminiai žodžiai: kūrybiškumas, kūrybiškumo matavimas, kūrybiškumo testai, kriterijai, vizualinis meninis ugdymas.

Keyword : creativity, creativity measurement, creativity tests, criteria, visual arts education

How to Cite
Ulger, K. (2020). A review of the criteria of the prediction of students’ creative skills in the visual arts education. Creativity Studies, 13(2), 510-531.
Published in Issue
Sep 21, 2020
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Acar, S., & Runco, M. A. (2015). Thinking in multiple directions: hyperspace categories in divergent thinking. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(1), 41–53.

Almeida, L. S., Prieto Prieto, L., Ferrando, M., Oliveira, E., & Ferrándiz, C. (2008). Torrance test of creative thinking: the question of its construct validity. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 3(1), 53–58.

Alter, F. (2010). Using the visual arts to harness creativity. UNESCO Observatory, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, the University of Melbourne Refereed E-Journal, 1(5).

Barry Kaufman, S., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & DeYoung, C. G. (2016). Openness to experience and intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84(2), 248–258.

Basadur, M. (1994). Managing the creative process in organizations. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Problem finding, problem solving, and creativity (pp. 237–268). Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Basadur, M., & Finkbeiner, C. T. (1985). Measuring preference for ideation in creative problem-solving training. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21(1), 37–49.

Batey, M. (2012). The measurement of creativity: from definitional consensus to the introduction of a New Heuristic framework. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 55–65.

Boise State University. (2019). Research compliance.

Broome, J. (2016). Assessing the professional development needs of arts instructors working in multi-age classrooms. Arts Education Policy Review, 117(1), 65–72.

Butler, D. L., & Kline, M. A. (1998). Good versus creative solutions: a comparison of brainstorming, hierarchical, and perspective-changing heuristics. Creativity Research Journal, 11(4), 325–331.

Chan, D. W., & Zhao, Y. (2010). The relationship between drawing skill and artistic creativity: do age and artistic involvement make a difference? Creativity Research Journal, 22(1), 27–36.

Chang, Y., Li, B.-D., Chen, H.-Ch., & Chiu, F.-Ch. (2015). Investigating the synergy of critical thinking and creative thinking in the course of integrated activity in Taiwan. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 35(3), 341–360.

Chávez-Eakle, R. A., Eakle, A. J., & Cruz-Fuentes, C. (2012). The multiple relations between creativity and personality. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 76–82.

Clapham, M. M. (2004). The convergent validity of the Torrance tests of creative thinking and creativity interest inventories. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(5), 828–841.

Clapham, M. M., Cowdery, E. M., King, K. E., & Montang, M. A. (2005). Predicting work activities with divergent thinking tests: a longitudinal study. Journal of Creative Behavior, 39(3), 149–166.

Cropley, A. J. (2004). Creativity in education and learning: a guide for teachers and educators. Routledge.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2013). Creativity: flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. HarperCollins Publishers.

Diket, R. M., & Brewer, Th. M. (2011). NAEP and policy: chasing the tail of the assessment tiger. Arts Education Policy Review, 112(1), 35–47.

Epstein, R., Schmidt, S. M., & Warfel, R. (2008). Measuring and training creativity competencies: validation of a new test. Creativity Research Journal, 20(1), 7–12.

Fink, A., & Benedek, M. (2013). The creative brain: brain correlates underlying the generation of original ideas. In O. Vartanian, A. S. Bristol, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Neuroscience of creativity (pp. 207–232). The MIT Press.

Garg, R. (2016). Methodology for research I. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 60(9), 640–645.

Hallam, J. L., Hewitt, D., & Buxton, S. (2014). An exploration of children’s experiences of art in the classroom. The International Journal of Art and Design Education, 33(2), 195–207.

Hennessey, B. A., Amabile, T. M., & Mueller, J. S. (2011). Consensual assessment. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.-in-Chief), Encyclopedia of Creativity, 1, 253–260. Academic Press.

Ho, H.-Ch., Wang, Ch.-Ch., & Cheng, Y.-Y. (2013). Analysis of the scientific imagination process. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 10, 68–78.

Hokanson, B., & McCluske, M. (2016). The creativity habit. In E. Boling, R. A. Schwier, C. M. Gray, K. M. Smith, & K. Campbell (Eds.), Studio teaching in higher education: selected design cases (pp. 180–194). Routledge.

Hong, E., Peng, Y., & O’Neil, Jr. H. F. (2014). Activities and accomplishments in various domains: relationships with creative personality and creative motivation in adolescence. Roeper Review, 36(2), 92–103.

Irish National Teachers’ Organization. (2019). Publications.

Jolley, R. (2019). The importance of an art education. Research and Analysis: AQA.

Kay, S. (1994). A method for investigating the creative thought process. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Problem finding, problem solving, and creativity (pp. 116–129). Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Kerr, B., & McKay, R. (2013). Searching for tomorrow’s innovators: profiling creative adolescents. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 21–32.

Kim, K. H. (2011). The creativity crisis: the decrease in creative thinking scores on the torrance tests of creative thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 23(4), 285–295.

Kozbelt, A. (2006). Dynamic evaluation of Matisse’s 1935. Large Reclining Nude, Empirical Studies of the Arts, 24(2), 119–137.

Lindström, L. (2006). Creativity: what is it? Can you assess it? Can it be taught? The International Journal of Art and Design Education, 25(1), 53–66.

Mannathoko, M. C., & Mamvuto, A. (2018). Learner involvement in art and design education assessment: the missing matrix in Botswana’s primary schools. Arts Education Policy Review, 119(3), 172–184.

McDonald, J. H. (2014). Handbook of biological statistics. Sparky House Publishing.

McKay, A. S., Karwowski, M., & Kaufman, J. C. (2017). Measuring the muses: validating the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 11(2), 216–230.

Nauert, Ch. G. (2006). Humanism and the culture of Renaissance Europe. Series: New Approaches to European History. Cambridge University Press.

Plucker, J. A., & Makel, M. C. (2010). Assessment of creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity (pp. 48–73). Cambridge University Press.

Reiter-Palmon, R., Forthmann, B., & Barbot, B. (2019). Scoring divergent thinking tests: a review and systematic framework. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 13(2), 144–152.

Rostan, S. M. (1997). A study of young artists: the development of artistic talent and creativity. Creative Research Journal, 10(2–3), 175–192.

Rostan, S. M. (2005). Educational intervention and the development of young art students’ talent and creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 39(4), 237–261.

Rostan, S. M., Pariser, D., & Gruber, H. E. (2002). A cross-cultural study of the development of artistic talent, creativity and giftedness. High Ability Studies, 13(2), 125–155.

Runco, M. A. (2016). Creative interpretations of educational contradictions. In R. A. Beghetto & B. Sriraman (Eds.), Creative contradictions in education: cross disciplinary paradoxes and perspectives (pp. 75–87). Series: Creativity Theory and Action in Education. Vol. 1. Springer.

Runco, M. A. (2007). Creativity. Theories and themes: research, development, and practice. Elsevier Academic Press.

Sabol, F. R. (2004). The assessment context: part two. Arts Education Policy Review, 105(4), 3–8.

Schultz, R. A. (2002). Apples, oranges, and assessment. Arts Education Policy Review, 103(3), 11–16.

Scotney, V. S., Weissmeyer, S., Carber, N., & Gabora, L. (2019). The ubiquity of cross-domain thinking in the early phase of the creative process. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Social Science Statistics. (2019). Easy fisher exact test calculator.

Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Creative thinking in the classroom. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3), 325–338.

Torrance, E. P. (1966). Torrance tests of creative thinking. Personnel Press.

Ulger, K. (2016). The creative training in the visual arts education. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 19, 73–87.

Ulger, K. (2015). The structure of creative thinking: visual and verbal areas. Creativity Research Journal, 27(1), 102–106.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2006, 6–9 March). Road map for arts education. The World Conference on Arts Education: Building Creative Capacities for the 21st Century.

Urban, K. K. (2005). Assessing creativity: The Test for Creative Thinking–Drawing Production (TCT–DP). International Education Journal, 6(2), 272–280.

Ülger, K. (2016). Öğrencilerin resim yapma becerilerinde gözlemlenen yaratıcılık ile yaratıcı düşünme becerileri arasındaki ilişki. Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(4), 2023–2039.

Viskontas, I. V., & Miller, B. L. (2013). Art and dementia: how degeneration of some brain regions can lead to new creative impulses. In O. Vartanian, A. S. Bristol, & J. C. Kaufman, (Eds.), Neuroscience of creativity (pp. 115–132). The MIT Press.

Weinstein, E. C., Clark, Z., DiBartolomeo, D. J., & Davis, K. (2014). A decline in creativity? It depends on the domain. Creativity Research Journal, 26(2), 174–184.

Writing@CSU. (2019). Types of content analysis.

Zaidel, D. W. (2013). Biological and neuronal underpinnings of creativity in the arts. In O. Vartanian, A. S. Bristol, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Neuroscience of creativity (pp. 133–148). The MIT Press.