Share:


Measuring the performance of assets: a review of the Facility Condition Index

    Fulvio Re Cecconi   Affiliation
    ; Nicola Moretti   Affiliation
    ; Mario Claudio Dejaco   Affiliation

Abstract

Measurement of performances in asset management is an enabling factor to define an effective strategy. The scope of this research concerns the investigation on the Facility Condition Index (FCI): one of the most common metrics related to the built environment. The research aims at providing a critical review concerning the FCI and its use. The research methodology has been developed according to three steps: bibliographic research, bibliometric analysis and critical review. Most of the sources agree that FCI provides a reliable economic measurement of maintenance needs, though it must be tied to a strong condition assessment methodology. Moreover, different methodologies for computation of the deferred maintenance and the current replacement value can be found in literature and many researchers emphasised the limits of FCI when dealing with components characterised by a considerable difference in replacement costs. In conclusion, FCI is included in the wider framework of asset management business process.

Keyword : Facility Condition Index, FCI, performance measurement, KPI, asset management, facility management, maintenance management

How to Cite
Re Cecconi, F., Moretti, N., & Dejaco, M. C. (2019). Measuring the performance of assets: a review of the Facility Condition Index. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 23(3), 187-196. https://doi.org/10.3846/ijspm.2019.7955
Published in Issue
Feb 18, 2019
Abstract Views
315
PDF Downloads
163
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

AAPPA. (2000, October). Guidelines for strategic asset management. In Facilities officers. Tertiary Education Facilities Management Association of Australasia.

Alexander, K. (1992). Facilities management practice. Facilities, 10(5), 11-18. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000002189

Amaratunga, D., & Baldry, D. (2000). Assessment of facilities management performance in higher education properties. Facilities, 18(7/8), 293-301. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632770010340681

Amaratunga, D., & Baldry, D. (2003). A conceptual framework to measure facilities management performance. Property Management, 21(2), 171-189. https://doi.org/10.1108/02637470310478909

Amaratunga, D., Baldry, D., & Sarshar, M. (2000). Assessment of facilities management performance. Facilities, 18, 258-266. https://doi.org/10.1108/02637470010348816

Attalla, M., MacDonald, C., & Dunn, R. (2012). Asset management plan. Retrieved from https://facilities.mcmaster.ca/app/uploads/2018/10/AssetManagementPlan-V02-Rev10-27Feb2013.pdf

Bello, M. A., & Loftness, V. (2010). Addressing inadequate investment in school facility maintenance addressing inadequate investment in school facility maintenance. Library and Information Science, Carnegie Mellon University.

Brooks, R. G. (2004, March/April). History of the facility condition index. Facilities Manager, 41-43.

BSI. (2013). PAS 1192-2:2013. Specification for information management for the capital/delivery phase of construction projects using building information modelling. The British Standards Institution, BSI Standards Limited.

Cable, J. H., & Davis, J. S. (2005). Key performance indicators for federal facilities portfolios: Federal Facilities Council technical report number 147. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11226

Capital Asset Management – Asset Strategies. (2011). Facility Condition Index, 604, 0-2.

Dejaco, M. C., Re Cecconi, F., & Maltese, S. (2017). Key performance indicators for building condition assessment. Journal of Building Engineering, 9, 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2016.11.004

Dempsey, J. J. (2006). Facility asset managemet doctrine. A Strategy for making better decisions at lower risk and costs. Federal Facilities Council’s Forum, 1-7.

Determan, J., Akers, M. A., Williams, I., Hohmann, C., & Martin-Dunlop, C. (2015). Learning space design for the ethnically diverse undergraduate classroom (pp. 1-22). The American Institute of Architects.

Douglas, J. (1996). Building performance and its relevance to facilities management. Facilities, 14(3/4), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632779610112508

Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Rafael, S., & Kathleen, L. (2011). BIM handbook: a guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors. Hobken: John Wiley & Sons.

Ente Italiano di Unificazione. (2018). UNI EN ISO 41011:2018 - Facility management - Vocabulary. UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, Milan, Italy.

Fagan, M. M., & Kirkwood, D. M. (1997). Facility condition assessments: more than just making a list. In American Society for Healthcare Engineering 34th Annual Conference & Technical Exhibition. Retrieved from http://kirkwoodandassociates.com/resources/CondxAss.pdf

Federal Facilities Council. (2001). Deferred maintenance reporting for federal facilities: meeting the requirements of Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board Number 6 as amended. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10095

Geldermann, B. D., & Sapp, D. (2007). Streamlining facility condition assessments. Retrieved from https://www.buildings.com/article-details/articleid/3590/title/streamlining-facility-condition-assessments

General Service Administration. (2017). Federal Real Property Council (FRPC). Retrieved from https://www.gsa.gov/policy-regulations/policy/real-property-policy/asset-management/federal-real-property-council-frpc#

Grussing, M. N., & Marrano, L. R. (2007, July 24-27). Building component lifecycle repair/replacement model for institutional facility management. In International Workshop on Computing in Civil Engineering (pp. 550-557). Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. https://doi.org/10.1061/40937(261)65

Ho, D. C. W., Chan, E. H. W., Wong, N. Y., & Chan, M. (2000). Significant metrics for facilities management benchmarking in the Asia Pacific region. Facilities, 18(13/14), 545-556. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632770010358088

IFMA. (2008). Asset lifecycle model for total cost of ownership management. A framework for facilities lifecycle cost management. Retrieved from http://www.ifma.org/docs/knowledge-base/asset_lifecyle_model.pdf?sfvrsn=2

ISO. (2014). BS ISO 55000:2014 Asset management overview, principles and terminology. Retrieved from http://www.irantpm.ir/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/ISO-55000-2014.pdf

Kaiser, H. (2009). Capital renewal and deferred maintenance programs. Alexandria, Virginia.

Kaiser, H. H. (1993). Putting the facilities work. Facilities Manager, 18-21.

Kensek, K. (2015). BIM guidelines inform facilities management databases: a case study over time. Buildings, 5(3), 899-916. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030899

Kincaid, D. W. (2013, September). Standardized current replacement value calculations make facility condition index more effective. Retrieved from http://www.facilitiesnet.com/facilities-management/article/Standardi?ns-Make-Facility-Condition-Index-More-Effective--14351?source=part

Ladiana, D. (2007). Manutenzione e gestione sostenibile dell’ambiente urbano. Firenze: Alinea Editrice.

Lavy, S. (2013). Practice briefing. Facility management practices in higher education buildings. A case study. Journal of Facilities Management, 6(4), 303-315. https://doi.org/10.1108/14725960810908163

Lavy, S., Garcia, J. A., & Dixit, M. K. (2010). Establishment of KPIs for facility performance measurement: review of literature. Facilities, 28(9/10), 440-464. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632771011057189

Lavy, S., Garcia, J. A., & Dixit, M. K. (2014a). KPIs for facility’s performance assessment, Part I: identification and categorization of core indicators. Facilities, 32(5), 256-274. https://doi.org/10.1108/F-09-2012-0066

Lavy, S., Garcia, J. A., & Dixit, M. K. (2014b). KPIs for facility’s performance assessment, Part II: identification of variables and deriving expressions for core indicators. Facilities, 32(5/6), 275-294. https://doi.org/10.1108/F-09-2012-0067

Lavy, S., Garcia, J. A., Scinto, P., & Dixit, M. K. (2014). Key performance indicators for facility performance assessment: simulation of core indicators. Construction Management and Economics, 32(12), 1183-1204. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2014.970208

Magellan Consulting. (2011). Facility condition index (FCI) at Austin ISD. Retrieved from http://www.assetinsights.net/Glossary/G_Facility_Condition_Index.html%5CnFigure

Maltese, S., Dejaco, M. C., & Re Cecconi, F. (2017, May 29-31). Dynamic facility condition index calculation for asset management. In 14th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. Ghent, Belgium, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L.

Marzouk, M., & Awad, E. (2016). Establishing multi level performance condition indices for public schools maintenance program using AHP and Fuzzy Logic. Studies in Informatics and Control, 25(3), 343-352. https://doi.org/10.24846/v25i3y201608

Mills, C. D. (2001). An evaluation of U. S. coast guard shore facility readiness measures. In U.S. Army War College. https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA394782https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2016.10.006

NASA. (2003). The NASA deferred maintenance parametric estimating guide. Retrieved from https://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codej/codejx/Assets/Docs/DMParametricEstimatingGuideApr03.pdf

Karanja, P., & Mayo, G. K. (2016). State of practice for facility condition assessment. Retrieved from https://www.research-gate.net/publication/308972076_State_of_Practice_for_Facil-ity_Condition_Assessment

Pärn, E. A., Edwards, D. J., & Sing, M. C. P. (2017). The building information modelling trajectory in facilities management: a review. Automation in Construction, 75, 45-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2016.12.003

Parsons. (2013). Dallas independent school district. 2013 Facilities condition assessment. Retrieved from http://frontburner.dmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/bond_fore-man_ParsonsReport.pdf

Perianes-Rodriguez, A., Waltman, L., Jan, N., & Eck, N. J. (2016). Constructing bibliometric networks: a comparison between full and fractional counting. Journal of Informetrics, 10(4), 1178-1195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2016.10.006

Quirk, R. (2006, October). The facilities condition index as a measure of the conditions of public universities as perceived by the end users. Facilities Manager, 62-69.

Rashedi, R., & Hegazy, T. (2016). Examining budget policies for new and existing facilities: a system dynamics approach. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 43(6), 511-522. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2015-0486

Roberts, L. W. (2009). Measuring school facility conditions: an illustration of the importance of purpose. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 20(5), 547-567. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-3563(2012)000012B007

Rush, S. C. (1991). Managing the facilities portfolio: a practical approach to institutional facility renewal and deferred maintenance. National Association of College and University Business Officers.

Selman, J. R. (2003). Creating a defensible recapitalisation programme. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 5(2), 115-125. https://doi.org/10.1108/14630010310812055

Selman, J. R., & Schneider, R. (2004). The impact of life-cycle cost management on portfolio strategies. Journal of Facilities Management, 3(2), 173-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/14725960510808428

Shohet, I. M., Kot, N., & Karako, I. (2008). Clinic facility maintenance using life cycle costs principles. In CIB W070 Conference in Facilities Management (pp. 259-268). Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh.

Teicholz, E., & Edgar, A. (2001). Facility condition assessment practices (pp. 1-14). Retrieved from http://www.graphicsys-tems.biz/gsi/articles/faccondassessprac_ifma_01sept.pdf

U.S. Department of Defense. (2017). U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved from https://www.defense.gov/

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2005a). Asset priority index guidance. Retrieved from https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/migrated/pam/programs/asset_management/upload/APIGuidance092105.pdf

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2005b). Site-specific asset business plan (ABP) model format guidance. Retrieved from https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/migrated/pam/pro-grams/space_management/upload/Supplemental-Guidance-on-Measuring-Performance.pdf

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2008a). Asset management plan. Version 3.0. Retrieved from https://search.usa.gov/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&affiliate=doi.gov&query=asset+management+plan&commit=Search

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2008b). Policy on deferred maintenance, current replacement value and facility condition index in life-cycle cost management. Retrieved from https://edit.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/migrated/pam/pro-grams/asset_management/upload/PolicyDMCRV53008.pdf

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2016). Deferred maintenance and capital improvement planning guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/migrated/pam/pro-grams/asset_management/upload/2020_dmci_program_and_budget_guidelines_final.pdf

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2017a). Office of acquisition and property management. Retrieved from https://edit.doi.gov/pam/

U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. (2012a). Park Facility Management Division Park Facility Management Division. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/policy/dorders/rm-35b.pdf

U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. (2012b). Park facility management division reference manual – 35B reference manual for the cost recovery for National Park Service provided utilities. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/policy/dorders/rm-35b.pdf

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2017b). Retrieved from https://www.doi.gov/

Uzarski, D. R., & Grussing, M. N. (2008). Building condition assessment metrics: best practices. Infrastructure Reporting and Asset Management, 147-152. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784409589.ch20

Vanier, D. J. (2000). Asset management 101: a primer. In APWA International Public Works Congress NRCC/CPWA Seminar Series “Innovations in Urban Infrastructure” (pp. 1-15). Canada, Ottawa.

Yang, H., Yeung, J. F. Y., Chan, A. P. C., Chiang, Y. H., & Chan, D. W. M. (2010). A critical review of performance measurement in construction. Journal of Facilities Management, 8(4), 269-284. https://doi.org/10.1108/14725961011078981

Yik, F. W. H., & Lai, J. H. K. (2005). The trend of outsourcing for building services operation and maintenance in Hong Kong. Facilities, 23(1/2), 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632770510575901