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Structural application of 3D printing technologies: mechanical properties of printed polymeric materials / Konstrukcinis 3D spausdinimo technologijų taikymas: spausdintų polimerinių medžiagų mechaninės savybės

Abstract

Additive manufacturing and modern printing technologies using polymeric materials extend the limits of industrial production and encourage applying 3D printing technique in many fields. An item of any shape and size limited only by the printing pad of particular equipment can be reproduced from a variety of materials. Polymers is the object of this research. It is known that mechanical properties of the printed elements are closely related with the manufacturing technology and vary significantly depending on the chosen production parameters such as printing temperature, velocity, and infill density. Depending on the purpose, a particular type of polymer can be used in structural analysis. This work considers mechanical properties of four thermoplastic polymeric materials widely used for prototyping: polylactic acid (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PETG). The study is focused on two fundamental mechanical characteristics, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, of the printed material. Dumbbell-shaped samples were made of the PLA, ABS, HIPS and PETG polymers using 3D printing technique with the same filling density (≈ 20%) of the entry level. The tensile tests were carried out in Laboratory of Innovative Building Structures at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The predominant effect of the printing direction on the mechanical properties of the printed materials was demonstrated in this study. The corresponding experimental characteristics are presented in the manuscript.


Santrauka


Modernūs gamybos procesai ir spausdinimo technologijos, naudojant polimerines medžiagas, plečia pramoninės gamybos ribas bei skatina taikyti 3D spausdinimo technologijas daugelyje sričių. Tokios technologijos leidžia gaminti bet kokios formos elementus iš įvairių medžiagų, o jų dydį lemia tik naudojamos spausdinimo įrangos galimybės. Pagrindinis šio tyrimo objektas – polimerinės medžiagos. Spausdintų elementų iš polimerinių medžiagų mechaninės savybės glaudžiai siejamos su gamybos technologija ir gali stipriai varijuoti keičiant gamybos proceso parametrus – spausdinimo temperatūrą, greitį, užpildo tankį. Polimero tipas kartu su jo mechaninėmis savybėmis parenkamas atsižvelgiant į konstrukcinį uždavinį. Šiame darbe nagrinėjamos plačiai prototipų gamyboje taikomų termoplastinių polimerinių medžiagų – polietileno rūgšties (PLA), akrilonitrilo butadieno stireno (ABS), polistireno (HIPS) ir polietileno tereftalato (PETG) – mechaninės savybės. Tyrime dėmesys skiriamas dviem pagrindinėms mechaninėms medžiagų charakteristikoms – tempiamajam stipriui ir tamprumo moduliui. Taikant 3D spausdinimo technologiją buvo pagaminti kaulo formos bandiniai iš PLA, ABS, HIPS ir PETG medžiagų. Bandinių užpildo tankis siekė ≈ 20 % paviršiaus spausdinimo sluoksnio tankio. Elementų tempimo bandymai atlikti Inovatyvių statybinių konstrukcijų laboratorijoje Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitete. Šiame tyrime buvo parodyta spausdinimo krypties įtaka spausdintų medžiagų mechaninėms savybėms. Taip pat pateiktos eksperimentiškai nustatytos polimerinių medžiagų mechaninės savybės.


Reikšminiai žodžiai: polimerai, 3D spausdinimas, tempimo bandymas, mechaninės savybės, PLA, ABS, HIPS, PETG.

Keyword : polymers, 3D printing, tensile test, mechanical properties, PLA, ABS, HIPS, PETG

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Dec 21, 2018
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