A multi-objective input-output model to assess E4 impacts of building retrofitting measures to improve energy efficiency
This paper develops a bottom-up approach in the scope of a multi-objective linear programming model (MOLP) based on Input-Output (I-O) analysis to account for investment options aimed at improving the thermal properties of building envelope (e.g., the insulation of external walls and roof, and the replacement of window frames and window glazing). This methodological framework aims at assessing the trade-offs between the overall employment, GDP and energy savings associated with the building sector (residential, private services and public services). Distinct impacts, namely on direct and indirect employment generation, environment (CO2 emissions), energy security supply (energy imports and renewable energy production) and other relevant economic indicators are also analysed. Different sets of input parameters for the economic context and the environmental impacts have been defined as interval coefficients to account for uncertainty. Robust solutions are then obtained by considering the minimisation of the worst possible deviation of the interval objective functions to the corresponding interval ideal solutions.
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