From Value Co-creation to positive experiences and customer satisfaction. A customer perspective in the hotel industry
This study evaluates whether the Value Co-creation (VCC) process in hotels contributes to positive guest experience and satisfaction. This paper utilizes the DART model (Dialogue, Access, Risk, and Transparency) as the main framework to explore VCC in hotels. This research is the first to both adjust the DART model to a customer’s viewpoint and evaluate it in the hotel context. The included data is derived from 484 international tourists lodged in Greek hotels and is analyzed with the structural equation modeling technique. Results suggest that the Dialogue component of DART does not affect the positive experience, while Access, Transparency, and Risk Assessment do, in fact, strongly influence tourist satisfaction. The current study enriches and consolidates VCC–DART theory in the hotel context.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ahmad, S. Z., Ahmad, N., & Papastathopoulos, A. (2019). Measuring service quality and customer satisfaction of the small- and medium-sized hotels (SMSHs) industry: Lessons from United Arab Emirates (UAE). Tourism Review, 74(3), 349–370. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-10-2017-0160
Albinsson, P. A., Perera, B. Y., & Sautter, P. T. (2016). DART scale development: Diagnosing a firm’s readiness for strategic value co-creation. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 24(1), 42–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.2016.1089763
Aliperti, G., Nagai, H., & Cruz, A. M. (2020). Communicating risk to tourists: A mental models approach to identifying gaps and misperceptions. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 100615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.100615
Barrera, R. B., & Carrión, G. C. (2014). Simultaneous measurement of quality in different online services. The Service Industries Journal, 34(2), 123–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2013.763345
Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social science research: principles, methods, and practices. In Textbooks collection (Vol. 9). Global Text Project.
Browne, M. W., & Robert, C. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen, & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. Sage.
Buhalis, D. (2019). Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 267–272. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2019-0258
Buhalis, D., & Foerste, M. (2014). SoCoMo marketing for travel and tourism: Empowering co-creation of value. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(3), 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.04.001
Buhalis, D., & Leung, R. (2018). Smart hospitality – Interconnectivity and interoperability towards an ecosystem. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 71, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.11.011
Buhalis, D., & Sinarta, Y. (2019). Real-time co-creation and nowness service: lessons from tourism and hospitality. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 36(5), 563–582. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2019.1592059
Campos, A. C., Mendes, J., Valle, P. O. do, & Scott, N. (2018). Co-creation of tourist experiences: a literature review. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(4), 369–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2015.1081158
Chathoth, P., Altinay, L., Harrington, R. J., Okumus, F., & Chan, E. S. W. (2013). Co-production versus co-creation: A process based continuum in the hotel service context. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.03.009
Chathoth, P., Ungson, G. R., Harrington, R. J., & Chan, E. S. W. (2016). Co-creation and higher order customer engagement in hospitality and tourism services. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(2), 222–245. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2014-0526
Chen, J. S., Kerr, D., Chou, C. Y., & Ang, C. (2017). Business co-creation for service innovation in the hospitality and tourism industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(6), 1522–1540. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2015-0308
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Damali, U., Secchi, E., Tax, S. S., & McCutcheon, D. (2020). Customer participation risk management: conceptual model and managerial assessment tool. Journal of Service Management, 32(1), 27–51. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOSM-05-2018-0147
Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. (1986). Bootstrap methods for standard errors, confidence intervals, and other measures of statistical accuracy. Statistical Science, 1(1), 54–75. https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1177013815
Fan, D. X. F., Buhalis, D., & Lin, B. (2019). A tourist typology of online and face-to-face social contact: Destination immersion and tourism encapsulation/decapsulation. Annals of Tourism Research, 78, 102757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102757
Femenia-Serra, F., Perles-Ribes, J. F., & Ivars-Baidal, J. A. (2019). Smart destinations and tech-savvy millennial tourists: hype versus reality. Tourism Review, 74(1), 63–81. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2018-0018
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104
Gajdošík, T., Maráková, V., & Kučerová, J. (2020). From mass tourists to smart tourists: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 76(1), 47–50. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-07-2019-0285
Gallarza, M. G., & Gil Saura, I. (2020). Consumer value in tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 41–44. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2019-0227
Galvagno, M., & Dalli, D. (2014). Theory of value co-creation: a systematic literature review. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 24(6), 643–683. https://doi.org/10.1108/MSQ-09-2013-0187
Gaskin, J., & Lim, J. (2017). Model fit measures (AMOS Plugin, 2016). Gaskination’s StatWiki.
González-Mansilla, Ó., Berenguer-Contrí, G., & Serra-Cantallops, A. (2019). The impact of value cocreation on hotel brand equity and customer satisfaction. Tourism Management, 75, 51–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.04.024
Grissemann, U. S., & Stokburger-Sauer, N. E. (2012). Customer co-creation of travel services: The role of company support and customer satisfaction with the co-creation performance. Tourism Management, 33(6), 1483–1492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.002
Grönroos, C. (2004). The relationship marketing process: Communication, interaction, dialogue, value. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19, 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620410523981
Guerrero, M., Cunningham, J. A., & Urbano, D. (2015). Economic impact of entrepreneurial universities’ activities: An exploratory study of the United Kingdom. Research Policy, 44(3), 748–764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2014.10.008
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Prentice Hall.
Heidenreich, S., Wittkowski, K., Handrich, M., & Falk, T. (2015). The dark side of customer co-creation: exploring the consequences of failed co-created services. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(3), 279–296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0387-4
Huang, Y. C., Chang, L. L., Yu, C. P., & Chen, J. (2019). Examining an extended technology acceptance model with experience construct on hotel consumers’ adoption of mobile applications. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 28(8), 957–980. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.1580172
Ingram, C., Caruana, R., & McCabe, S. (2017). PARTicipative inquiry for tourist experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 65, 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2017.04.008
Jaakola, E., Helkkula, A., & Aarika. (2015). Service experience co-creation: conceptualization, implications, and future research directions. Journal of Service Management, 26(2), 182–205. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOSM-12-2014-0323
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1984). LISREL VI, analysis of linear structural relationships by maximum likelihood, instrumental variables, and least squares methods. Scientific Software.
Kim, S.-B., & Kim, D.-Y. (2016). The impacts of corporate social responsibility, service quality, and transparency on relationship quality and customer loyalty in the hotel industry. Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility, 1(1), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41180-016-0004-1
Kornum, N., & Mühlbacher, H. (2013). Multi-stakeholder virtual dialogue: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1460–1464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.09.008
Kuo, P. J., Zhang, L., & Cranage, D. A. (2015). What you get is not what you saw: Exploring the impacts of misleading hotel website photos. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), 1301–1319. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-11-2013-0532
Lachowicz, M. J., Preacher, K. J., & Kelley, K. (2018). A novel measure of effect size for mediation analysis. Psychological Methods, 23(2), 244–261. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000165
Lazarus, D., Krishna, A., & Dhaka, S. (2014). Co-creation willingness matrix and capability continuum for classification and scaling of services. Journal of Global Marketing, 27(4), 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/08911762.2014.909551
Lowry, P. B., & Gaskin, J. (2014). Partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling (SEM) for building and testing behavioral causal theory: When to choose it and how to use it. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 57(2), 123–146. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPC.2014.2312452
Mahmoud, A. B., Hack-polay, D., Fuxman, L., Massetti, B., & Al Samarh, A. Z. (2020). Developing and validating a new multi-dimensional scale for anti-social behavior in a higher education setting. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 61(4), 502–512. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12635
Majboub, W. (2014). Co-creation of value or co-creation of experience? Interrogations in the field of cultural tourism. International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism, 7(7), 12–31.
Malca, O., Bolaños, J. P., Acedo, F. J., Rubio Donet, J. L., & Peña-Vinces, J. (2020). Relational flexibility norms and relationship-building capabilities as a mediating mechanism in export performance: insights from exporting SMEs in an emerging economy, Peru. International Journal of Emerging Markets (in press). https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOEM-09-2019-0735
Marsh, H. W., & Hocevar, D. (1985). Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of selfconcept: First- and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological Bulletin, 97(3), 562–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.97.3.562
Mathis, E. F., Kim, H. (Lina), Uysal, M., Sirgy, J. M., & Prebensen, N. K. (2016). The effect of co-creation experience on outcome variable. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 62–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2015.11.023
Maunier, C., & Camelis, C. (2013). Toward an identification of elements contributing to satisfaction with the tourism experience. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19(1), 19–39. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766712468733
Mazur, J., & Zaborek, P. (2014). Validating Dart Model. International Journal of Management and Economics, 44(1), 106–125. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijme-2015-0012
Mohammadi, F., Yazdani, H. R., Jami Pour, M., & Soltanee, M. (2021). Co-creation in tourism: a systematic mapping study. Tourism Review, 76(2), 305–343. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-10-2019-0425
Morosan, C. (2018). An empirical analysis of intentions to cocreate value in hotels using mobile devices. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(4), 528–562. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348015597034
Neuhofer, B. (2016). Value co-creation and co-destruction in connected tourist experiences. In A. Inversini, & R. Schegg (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2016 (pp. 779–792). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28231-2_56
Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2015). Smart technologies for personalized experiences: a case study in the hospitality domain. Electronic Markets, 25, 243–254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-015-0182-1
Nguyen, D. N., Imamura, F., & Iuchi, K. (2018). Barriers towards hotel disaster preparedness: Case studies of post 2011 Tsunami, Japan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, 585–594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.01.008
Oh, H., Fiore, A. M., & Jeoung, M. (2007). Measuring experience economy concepts: tourism applications. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 119–132. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287507304039
Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: a behavioral perspective on the consumer. Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Otto, J. E., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1996). The service experience in tourism. Tourism Management, 17(3), 165–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(96)00003-9
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Polo Peña, A. I., Frías Jamilena, D. M., & Rodríguez Molina, M. Á. (2014). Value co-creation via information and communications technology. The Service Industries Journal, 34(13), 1043–1059. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2014.939641
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004a). Co‐creating unique value with customers. Strategy & Leadership, 32(3), 4–9. https://doi.org/10.1108/10878570410699249
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004b). The future of competition: co-creating unique value with customers. Harvard Business Scool Press.
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004c). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20015
Prebensen, N. K., & Xie, J. (2017). Efficacy of co-creation and mastering on perceived value and satisfaction in tourists’ consumption. Tourism Management, 60, 166–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.12.001
Qian, J., Law, R., Wei, J., Shen, H., & Sun, Y. (2021). Hotels’ self-positioned image versus customers’ perceived image: a case study of a boutique luxury hotel in Hong Kong. Tourism Review, 76(1), 198–211. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2019-0078
Ramaswamy, V. (2008). Co-creating value through customers’ experiences: The Nike case. Strategy and Leadership, 36(5), 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1108/10878570810902068
Ramaswamy, V. (2011). It’s about human experiences… and beyond, to co-creation. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(2), 195–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.06.030
Ranjan, K. R., & Read, S. (2014). Value co-creation: concept and measurement. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(3), 290–315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0397-2
Rather, R. A., & Sharma, J. (2017). Customer engagement for evaluating customer relationships in hotel industry. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 8(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1515/ejthr-2017-0001
Saha, V., Mani, V., & Goyal, P. (2020). Emerging trends in the literature of value co-creation: a bibliometric analysis. Benchmarking, 27(3), 981–1002. https://doi.org/10.1108/BIJ-07-2019-0342
Serra-Cantallops, A., Ramón Cardona, J., & Salvi, F. (2020). Antecedents of positive eWOM in hotels. Exploring the relative role of satisfaction, quality and positive emotional experiences. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(11), 3457–3477. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2020-0113
Shaw, G., Bailey, A., & Williams, A. (2011). Aspects of service-dominant logic and its implications for tourism management: Examples from the hotel industry. Tourism Management, 32(2), 207–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.05.020
Solakis, K., Peña-Vinces, J. C., & Lopéz-Bonilla, J. M. (2017). DART model from a customer’s perspective: An exploratory study in the hospitality industry of Greece. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(2), 536–548. https://doi.org/10.21511/ppm.15(si).2017.07
Spena, R. T., Carida, M., Colurcio, M., & Melia, M. (2012). Store experience and co-creation: the case of temporary shop. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 40(1), 21–40. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590551211193586
Taghizadeh, S. K., Jayaraman, K., Ismail, I., & Rahman, S. A. (2016). Scale development and validation for DART model of value co-creation process on innovation strategy. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 31(1), 24–35. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-02-2014-0033
Tanev, S., Bailetti, T., Allen, S., Milyakov, H., Durchev, P., & Ruskov, P. (2011). How do value co-creation activities relate to the perception of firms’ innovativeness? Journal of Innovation Economics, 7(1), 131. https://doi.org/10.3917/jie.007.0131
Vafeas, M., Hughes, T., & Hilton, T. (2016). Antecedents to value diminution: A dyadic perspective. Marketing Theory, 16(4), 469–491. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593116652005
Wang, K.-C., Hsieh, A.-T., & Huan, T.-C. (2000). Critical service features in group package tour: An exploratory research. Tourism Management, 21(2), 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00047-3
Xiang, Z., Schwartz, Z., Gerdes, J. H., & Uysal, M. (2015). What can big data and text analytics tell us about hotel guest experience and satisfaction? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 44, 120–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.10.013
Yi, Y., & Gong, T. (2013). Customer value co-creation behavior: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1279–1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.02.026
Zaborek, P., & Mazur, J. (2019). Enabling value co-creation with consumers as a driver of business performance: A dual perspective of Polish manufacturing and service SMEs. Journal of Business Research, 104, 541–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.12.067
Zhang, T. (2019). Co-creating tourism experiences through a traveler’s journey: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 56–60. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2019-0251
Zhang, T. C., Jahromi, M. F., & Kizildag, M. (2018). Value co-creation in a sharing economy: The end of price wars? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 71, 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.11.010
Zouni, G., & Kouremenos, A. (2008). Do tourism providers know their visitors? An investigation of tourism experience at a destination. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 8(4), 282–297. https://doi.org/10.1057/thr.2008.30