Pedestrian safety evaluation of signalized intersections using surrogate safety measures
The large proportions of pedestrian fatalities led researchers to make the improvements of pedestrian safety at intersections. Thus, this paper proposes a methodology to evaluate crosswalk safety at signalized intersections using Surrogate Safety Measures (SSM) under mixed traffic conditions. The required pedestrian, traffic, and geometric data were extracted based on the videographic survey conducted at signalized intersections in Mumbai (India). Post Encroachment Time (PET) for each pedestrian were segregated into three categories for estimating pedestrian–vehicle interactions and Cumulative Frequency Distribution (CDF) was plotted to calculate the threshold values for each interaction severity level. The Cumulative Logistic Regression (CLR) model was developed to predict the pedestrian mean PET values in the cross-walk at signalized intersections. The proposed model was validated with a new signalized intersection and the results were shown that the proposed PET ranges and model appropriate for Indian mixed traffic conditions. To assess the suitability of model framework, model transferability was carried out with data collected at signalized intersection in Kolkata (India). Finally, this study can be helpful to rank the severity level of pedestrian safety in the crosswalk and improve the existing facilities at signalized intersections.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Bian, Y.; Ma, J.; Rong, J.; Wang, W.; Lu, J. 2009. Pedestrians’ level of service at signalized intersections in China, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2114: 83–89. https://doi.org/10.3141/2114-10
Cafiso, S.; García, A. G.; Cavarra, R.; Rojas, M. A. R. 2015. Cross-walk safety evaluation using a pedestrian risk index as traffic conflict measure, in 3rd International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation, 14–16 September 2011, Indianapolis, IN, US 1–15.
Chen, J.; Shi, J.-J.; Li, X.-L.; Zhao, Q. 2011. Pedestrian behavior and traffic violations at signalized intersections, in ICCTP 2011: Towards Sustainable Transportation Systems, 14–17 August 2011, Nanjing, China, 1103–1110. https://doi.org/10.1061/41186(421)108
Fu, T.; Miranda-Moreno, L.; Saunier, N. 2016. Pedestrian cross-walk safety at nonsignalized crossings during nighttime: use of thermal video data and surrogate safety measures, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2586: 90–99. https://doi.org/10.3141/2586-10
Highway Capacity Manual. 2010. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, US. 5th edition. 1650 p.
Huang, C.; Ma, W. 2010. A statistical analysis of pedestrian speed on signalized intersection crosswalk, in ICCTP 2010: Integrated Transportation Systems: Green, Intelligent, Reliable, 4–8 August 2010, Beijing, China, 1401–1407. https://doi.org/10.1061/41127(382)151
Kocourek, J.; Padělek, T. 2016. Application of the traffic conflict technique in the Czech Republic, in 2016 Smart Cities Symposium Prague (SCSP), 26–27 May 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, 3–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/SCSP.2016.7501037
Ling, Z.; Ni, Y.; Li, K. 2012. Modeling interactions between pedestrians and right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections, in CICTP 2012: Multimodal Transportation Systems – Convenient, Safe, Cost-Effective, Efficient, 3–6 August 2012, Beijing, China, 2072–2084. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784412442.211
Lipovac, K.; Vujanic, M.; Maric, B.; Nesic, M. 2013. Pedestrian behavior at signalized pedestrian crossings, Journal of Transportation Engineering 139(2): 165–172. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000491
Marisamynathan, S.; Vedagiri, P. 2018. A new approach to estimate pedestrian delay at signalized intersections, Transport 33(1): 249–259. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2016.1158208
Marisamynathan, S.; Vedagiri, P. 2015. A statistical analysis of pedestrian behaviour at signalized intersections, European Transport\Transporti Europei 57: 7.
Mohan, D.; Tiwari, G.; Bhalla, K. 2015. Road Safety in India: Status Report. Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. 93 p. Available from Internet: http://tripp.iitd.ernet.in/assets/publication/road_safety_in_India_Status-Report1.pdf
Muraleetharan, T.; Adachi, T.; Hagiwara, T.; Kagaya, S. 2005. Method to determine pedestrian level-of-service for cross-walks at urban intersections, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 6: 127–136.
Nadimi, N.; Behbahani, H.; Shahbazi, H. 2016. Calibration and validation of a new time-based surrogate safety measure using fuzzy inference system, Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition) 3(1): 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2015.09.004
Nagraj, R.; Vedagiri, P. 2013. Modeling pedestrian delay and level of service at signalized intersection crosswalks under mixed traffic conditions, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2394: 70–76. https://doi.org/10.3141/2394-09
NCRB. 2015. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2015. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi, India. 342 p. Available from Internet: http://ncrb.gov.in/StatPublications/ADSI/ADSI2015/adsi-2015-full-report.pdf
Ni, Y.; Ling, Z.; Li, K. 2013. A new evaluation method combining efficiency and safety: multimodal comprehensive level of service of signalized intersections, in ICTIS 2013: Improving Multimodal Transportation Systems – Information, Safety, and Integration, 29 June – 2 July 2013, Wuhan, China, 1449–1457. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413036.193
Persaud, B.; Saleem, T.; Chen, Y. 2013. Development of surrogate measures for crash-based safety estimation, in 16th Road Safety on Four Continents Conference, 15–17 May 2013, Beijing, China, 1–10.
Ren, G.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, W. 2011. Crossing behaviors of pedestrians at signalized intersections: observational study and survey in China, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2264: 65–73. https://doi.org/10.3141/2264-08
Roshandeh, A. M.; Li, Z.; Zhang, S.; Levinson, H. S.; Lu, X. 2016. Vehicle and pedestrian safety impacts of signal timing optimization in a dense urban street network, Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition) 3(1): 16–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2016.01.001
Song, H.; Yang, X. 2011. Analysis of level of safety service at T-signalized intersection in Beijing, in ICTIS 2011: Multimodal Approach to Sustained Transportation System Development: Information, Technology, Implementation, 30 June – 2 July 2011, Wuhan, China, 1019–1026. https://doi.org/10.1061/41177(415)129
Vedagiri, P.; Killi, D. V. 2015. Traffic safety evaluation of uncontrolled intersections using surrogate safety measures under mixed traffic conditions, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2512: 81–89. https://doi.org/10.3141/2512-10
Wang, X.; Abdel-Aty, M. 2008. Analysis of left-turn crash injury severity by conflicting pattern using partial proportional odds models, Accident Analysis & Prevention 40(5): 1674–1682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.06.001
Ye, X.; Chen, J.; Jiang, G.; Yan, X. 2015. Modeling pedestrian level of service at signalized intersection crosswalks under mixed traffic conditions, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2512: 46–55. https://doi.org/10.3141/2512-06
Zangenehpour, S.; Strauss, J.; Miranda-Moreno, L. F.; Saunier, N. 2016. Are signalized intersections with cycle tracks safer? A case–control study based on automated surrogate safety analysis using video data, Accident Analysis & Prevention 86: 161–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.10.025
Zhang, W.; Yang, X.; Xu, Z. 2009. Study on the capacity of right-turn movement under pedestrians’ influence at signalized intersections, in ICCTP 2009: Critical Issues in Transportation Systems Planning, Development, and Management, 5–9 August 2009, Harbin, China, 2976–2982. https://doi.org/10.1061/41064(358)418