Share:


Pedestrian safety: a new method to assess pedestrian kinematics

    Mariusz Ptak Affiliation

Abstract

The progress in pedestrian safety enhancement is the result of multi-stage work, which is based mainly on the vehicle enhancement and appropriate traffic organization. However, the full separation of vehicle traffic and pedestrians seem to be impossible nowadays. The paper presents a new method for assessing the influence of vehicle structural components on pedestrian kinematics. An integral part of the method is the relationship, named as the k parameter, which can determinate the geometric property of the pedestrian body movement (kinematics) after a collision. The development of the new algorithm is the answer to the problem of assessing the risk posed by the impact of the vehicle with a high bumper/bonnet reference line (e.g. a Sport Utility Vehicle – SUV) on a pedestrian. The presented method can be a useful engineering tool to assess the safety of vehicles, both brand-new and used. The developed test system binds together a new defined kinematic criterion as well as the existing biomechanical criteria (the assessment of vehicles using pedestrian impactors). The presented method was verified on a compact vehicle and a SUV.

Keyword : pedestrian, numerical simulation, vehicle design, traffic accident, traffic safety, kinematics, MADYMO

How to Cite
Ptak, M. (2019). Pedestrian safety: a new method to assess pedestrian kinematics. Transport, 34(1), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.3846/transport.2019.7081
Published in Issue
Jan 16, 2019
Abstract Views
61
PDF Downloads
53
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Anderson, R. W. G.; McLean, A. J.; Farmer, M. J. B.; Lee, B. H.; Brooks, C. G. 1997. Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes, Accident Analysis & Prevention 29(5): 667–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(97)00036-5

Anderson, R. W. G.; Streeter, L. D.; Ponte, G.; McLean, J. 2007. Pedestrian reconstruction using multibody MADYMO simulation and the Polar-II Dummy: a comparison of head kinematics. Paper No 07-0273, in 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), 18–21 June 2007, Lyon, France, 1–15.

Asaithambi, G.; Kuttan, M. O.; Chandra, S. 2016. Pedestrian road crossing behavior under mixed traffic conditions: a comparative study of an intersection before and after implementing control measures, Transportation in Developing Economies: a Journal of the Transportation Research Group of India 2:14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40890-016-0018-5

Cesari, D.; Cavallero, C.; Farisse, J.; Bonnoit, J. 1985. Effects of crash conditions on pedestrian leg kinematics and injuries based on cadaver and dummy tests, in 29th Annual Conference of the American Association for Automotive Medicine, 7–10 October 1985, Washington, DC, US, 275–285.

Chybowski, L.; Idziaszczyk, D.; Wiśnicki, B. 2014. A comparative components importance analysis of a complex technical system with the use of different importance measures, Systems Supporting Production Engineering: Review of Problems and Solutions 1(7): 22–33.

Crocetta, G.; Piantini, S.; Pierini, M.; Simms, C. 2015. The influence of vehicle front-end design on pedestrian ground impact, Accident Analysis & Prevention 79: 56–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.03.009

DYNAmore. 2018. Human Model. DYNAmore GmbH. Available from Internet: https://www.dynamore.de/en/products/models/human

EC. 2009a. Commission Regulation (EC) No 631/2009 of 22 July 2009 Laying Down Detailed Rules for the Implementation of Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 78/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Type-Approval of Motor Vehicles with Regard to the Protection of Pedestrians and other Vulnerable Road Users, Amending Directive 2007/46/EC and Repealing Directives 2003/102/EC and 2005/66/EC. 60 p. Available from Internet: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2009/631/oj

EC. 2009b. Regulation (EC) No 78/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 January 2009 on the Type-Approval of Motor Vehicles with Regard to the Protection of Pedestrians and Other Vulnerable Road Users, Amending Directive 2007/46/EC and Repealing Directives 2003/102/EC and 2005/66/EC. 31 p. Available from Internet: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2009/78/oj

EC. 2015. Road Safety in the European Union: Trends, Statistics and Main Challenges. European Commission. 24 p. https://doi.org/10.2832/404614

Fernandes, F. A. O.; Pascoal, R. J. S.; De Sousa, R. J. A. 2014. Modelling impact response of agglomerated cork, Materials & Design 58: 499–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.02.011

Fernandes, F. A. O.; Tchepel, D.; De Sousa, R. J. A.; Ptak, M. 2018. Development and validation of a new finite element human head model: yet another head model (YEAHM), Engineering Computations 35(1): 477–496. https://doi.org/10.1108/EC-09-2016-0321

Fricke, L. B. 1990. Traffic Accident Reconstruction: Volume 2 of the Traffic Accident Investigation Manual. Northwestern University Center for Public. 453 p.

Hamacher, M.; Eckstein, L.; Paas, R. 2012. Vehicle related influence of post‐car impact pedestrian kinematics on secondary impact, in 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, 12–14 September 2012, Dublin, Ireland, 717–729.

Henary, B. Y.; Crandall, J.; Bhalla, K.; Mock, C. N.; Roudsari, B. S. 2003. Child and adult pedestrian impact: the influence of vehicle type on injury severity, Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 47: 105–126.

IMPROVER. 2006. Impact on Road Safety Due to the Increasing of Sports Utility and Multipurpose Vehicles. Final Report TREN-04-ST-S07.37022. Impact Assessment of Road Safety Measures for Vehicles and Road Equipment (IMPROVER) Consortium. 169 p.

Ishikawa, H.; Kajzer, J.; Schroeder, G. 1993. Computer simulation of impact response of the human body in car-pedestrian accidents, SAE Technical Paper 933129: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.4271/933129

Jarrett, K. L.; Saul, R. A. 1998. Pedestrian injury-analysis of the PCDS field collision data, in 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 31 May – 4 June 1998, 1204–1211.

Jurecki, R. S.; Stańczyk, T. L. 2014. Driver reaction time to lateral entering pedestrian in a simulated crash traffic situation, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 27: 22–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.08.006

Kaczyński, P.; Bartczak, B. 2014. The influence of orientation of segmented die on clinch joints mechanical properties, Journal of Machine Engineering 14(3): 126–136.

Kadali, B. R.; Vedagiri, P. 2016. Proactive pedestrian safety evaluation at unprotected mid-block crosswalk locations under mixed traffic conditions, Safety Science 89: 94–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.05.014

Kerrigan, J. R.; Arregui‐Dalmases, C.; Foster, J., Crandall, J. R.; Rizzo, A. 2012. Pedestrian injury analysis: field data vs. laboratory experiments, in 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, 12–14 September 2012, Dublin, Ireland, 672–689.

Kolla, E.; Kohút, P.; Kubjatko, T. 2014. Analysis of pedestrian body movement in pedestrian – MPV collision, in IX Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna – Automotive Safety 2014 – Problemy Bezpieczeństwa w Pojazdach Samochodowych, 8–10 April 2014, Rajecké Teplice, Slovakia.

Kopczyński, A.; Ptak, M.; Harnatkiewicz, P. 2011. The influence of frontal protection system design on pedestrian passive safety, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 11(2): 345–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1644-9665(12)60148-4

Lefler, D. E.; Gabler, H. C. 2004. The fatality and injury risk of light truck impacts with pedestrians in the United States, Accident Analysis & Prevention 36(2): 295–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00007-1

Levulytė, L.; Baranyai, D.; Sokolovskij, E.; Török, Á. 2017. Pedestrians’ role in road accidents, International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering 7(3): 328–341. https://doi.org/10.7708/ijtte.2017.7(3).04

Levulytė, L.; Baranyai, D.; Török, Á.; Sokolovskij, E. 2016. Bicycles’ role in road accidents a review of literature, Transport and Telecommunication Journal 17(2): 122–127. https://doi.org/10.1515/ttj-2016-0011

Matsui, Y. 2004. Evaluation of pedestrian subsystem test method using legform and upper legform impactors for assessment of high-bumper vehicle aggressiveness, Traffic Injury Prevention 5(1): 76–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/15389580490430272

Matsui, Y.; Wittek, A.; Tanahashi, M. 2005. Pedestrian kinematics due to impacts by various passenger cars using full-scale dummy, International Journal of Vehicle Safety 1(1/2/3): 64–84. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJVS.2005.007538

Mizuno, Y. 2005. Summary of IHRA pedestrian safety WG activities (2005) – proposed test methods to evaluate pedestrian protection afforded by passenger cars, in 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), 6–9 June 2005, Washington, DC, US, 1–15.

Mizuno, Y. 2003. Summary of IHRA pedestrian safety WG activities (2003) – proposed test methods to evaluate pedestrian protection afforded by passenger cars, in 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), 19–22 May 2003, Nagoya, Japan, 1–17.

Nordfjærn, T.; Zavareh, M. F. 2016. Individualism, collectivism and pedestrian safety: a comparative study of young adults from Iran and Pakistan, Safety Science 87: 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.03.005

Otte, D. 1999. Severity and mechanism of head impacts in car to pedestrian accidents, in 1999 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, 23–24 September 1999, Sitges, Spain, 329–341.

Pezowicz, C.; Głowacki, M. 2012. The mechanical properties of human ribs in young adult, Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics 14(2): 53–60. https://doi.org/10.5277/abb120207

Ptak, M.; Blicharski, P.; Rusiński, E.; Karliński, J. 2017a. Numerical simulations of composite frontal protection system according to EC 78/2009, in Proceedings of the 13th International Scientific Conference: Computer Aided Engineering, 423–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50938-9_44

Ptak, M.; Kaczyński, P.; Fernandes, F.; De Sousa, R. A. 2017b. Computer simulations for head injuries verification after impact, in E. Rusiński, D. Pietrusiak (Eds.). Proceedings of the 13th International Scientific Conference: Computer Aided Engineering, 431–440. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50938-9_45

Ptak, M.; Karliński, J. 2012. Pedestrian passive safety during the SUV impact: regulations vs. reality, in 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, 12–14 September 2012, Dublin, Ireland, 103–113.

Ptak, M.; Konarzewski, K. 2015. Numerical technologies for vulnerable road user safety enhancement, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 354: 355–364. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16528-8_33

Ptak, M.; Rusiński, E.; Karliński, J.; Dragan, S. 2012. Evaluation of kinematics of SUV to pedestrian impact – lower leg impactor and dummy approach, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 12(1): 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2012.03.016

Ratajczak, M.; Sąsiadek, M.; Będziński, R. 2016. An analysis of the effect of impact loading on the destruction of vascular structures in the brain, Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics 18(3): 21–31. https://doi.org/10.5277/ABB-00552-2016-02

Rosén, E.; Stigson, H.; Sander, U. 2011. Literature review of pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed, Accident Analysis & Prevention 43(1): 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.04.003

Roudsari, B. S.; Mock, C. N.; Kaufman, R.; Grossman, D.; Henary, B. Y.; Crandall, J. 2004. Pedestrian crashes: higher injury severity and mortality rate for light truck vehicles compared with passenger vehicles, Injury Prevention 10(3): 154–158. https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2003.003814

Simms, C. K.; Wood, D. P. 2009. Pedestrian and Cyclist Impact: a Biomechanical Perspective. 230 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2743-6

Simms, C. K.; Wood, D. P. 2006. Pedestrian risk from cars and sport utility vehicles – a comparative analytical study, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 220(8): 1085–1100. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544070JAUTO319

Simms, C. K.; Wood, D.; Fredriksson, R. 2015. Pedestrian injury biomechanics and protection, in N. Yoganandan, A. M. NahumJohn, W. Melvin (Eds.). Accidental Injury, 721–753. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1732-7_24

Sokolovskij, E.; Prentkovskis, O. 2013. Investigating traffic accidents: the interaction between a motor vehicle and a pedestrian, Transport 28(3): 302–312. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2013.831771

Stevenson, T. J. 2006. Simulation of Vehicle-Pedestrian Interaction. PhD Thesis. University of Canterbury, New Zealand. 342 p. Available from Internet: https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/handle/10092/1180

Teresiński, G. 2005. Biomechanika potrąceń pieszego. Wydawnictwo. Akademii Medycznej w Lublinie. 1–87. (in Polish).

TNO. 2012. MADYMO: Human Body Models Manual. Release 7.4.1. The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO). 122 p.

Yang, J. 2005. Review of injury biomechanics in car-pedestrian collisions, International Journal of Vehicle Safety 1(1/2/3): 100–117. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJVS.2005.007540

Yasuki, T.; Yamamae, Y. 2010. Validation of kinematics and lower extremity injuries estimated by total human model for safety in SUV to pedestrian impact test, Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering 5(4): 340–356. https://doi.org/10.1299/jbse.5.340

Zalewski, R.; Szmidt, T. 2014. Application of special granular structures for semi-active damping of lateral beam vibrations, Engineering Structures 65: 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.01.035

Zhang, G.; Cao, L.; Hu, J.; Yang, K. H. 2008. A field data analysis of risk factors affecting the injury risks in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes, Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine 52: 199–214.

Żółkiewski, S. 2011. Testing composite materials connected in bolt joints, Journal of Vibroengineering 13(4): 817–822.